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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-10-10
    Description: The landforms of northern Gale crater on Mars expose thick sequences of sedimentary rocks. Based on images obtained by the Curiosity rover, we interpret these outcrops as evidence for past fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine environments. Degradation of the crater wall and rim probably supplied these sediments, which advanced inward from the wall, infilling both the crater and an internal lake basin to a thickness of at least 75 meters. This intracrater lake system probably existed intermittently for thousands to millions of years, implying a relatively wet climate that supplied moisture to the crater rim and transported sediment via streams into the lake basin. The deposits in Gale crater were then exhumed, probably by wind-driven erosion, creating Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grotzinger, J P -- Gupta, S -- Malin, M C -- Rubin, D M -- Schieber, J -- Siebach, K -- Sumner, D Y -- Stack, K M -- Vasavada, A R -- Arvidson, R E -- Calef, F 3rd -- Edgar, L -- Fischer, W F -- Grant, J A -- Griffes, J -- Kah, L C -- Lamb, M P -- Lewis, K W -- Mangold, N -- Minitti, M E -- Palucis, M -- Rice, M -- Williams, R M E -- Yingst, R A -- Blake, D -- Blaney, D -- Conrad, P -- Crisp, J -- Dietrich, W E -- Dromart, G -- Edgett, K S -- Ewing, R C -- Gellert, R -- Hurowitz, J A -- Kocurek, G -- Mahaffy, P -- McBride, M J -- McLennan, S M -- Mischna, M -- Ming, D -- Milliken, R -- Newsom, H -- Oehler, D -- Parker, T J -- Vaniman, D -- Wiens, R C -- Wilson, S A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 9;350(6257):aac7575. doi: 10.1126/science.aac7575.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Geologic and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK. ; Malin Space Science Systems, Post Office Box 910148, San Diego, CA 92121, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California-Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. ; Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. ; Astrogeology Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA. ; Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. ; Laboratoire Planetologie et Geodynamique de Nantes-Le Centre National de la Recherche, Unite Mixte de Recherche 6112 and Universite de Nantes, 44322 Nantes, France. ; Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. ; Department of Geology, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225, USA. ; Department of Space Sciences, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Laboratoire de Geologie de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, 69364 Lyon, France. ; Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. ; Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. ; Department of Geosciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2100, USA. ; Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. ; Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Division, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA. ; Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA. ; Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA. ; LZ Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA. ; Space Remote Sensing, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26450214" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Climate ; Exhumation ; *Lakes ; *Mars ; Paleontology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-12-11
    Description: Sedimentary rocks examined by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay, Mars, were derived from sources that evolved from an approximately average martian crustal composition to one influenced by alkaline basalts. No evidence of chemical weathering is preserved, indicating arid, possibly cold, paleoclimates and rapid erosion and deposition. The absence of predicted geochemical variations indicates that magnetite and phyllosilicates formed by diagenesis under low-temperature, circumneutral pH, rock-dominated aqueous conditions. Analyses of diagenetic features (including concretions, raised ridges, and fractures) at high spatial resolution indicate that they are composed of iron- and halogen-rich components, magnesium-iron-chlorine-rich components, and hydrated calcium sulfates, respectively. Composition of a cross-cutting dike-like feature is consistent with sedimentary intrusion. The geochemistry of these sedimentary rocks provides further evidence for diverse depositional and diagenetic sedimentary environments during the early history of Mars.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McLennan, S M -- Anderson, R B -- Bell, J F 3rd -- Bridges, J C -- Calef, F 3rd -- Campbell, J L -- Clark, B C -- Clegg, S -- Conrad, P -- Cousin, A -- Des Marais, D J -- Dromart, G -- Dyar, M D -- Edgar, L A -- Ehlmann, B L -- Fabre, C -- Forni, O -- Gasnault, O -- Gellert, R -- Gordon, S -- Grant, J A -- Grotzinger, J P -- Gupta, S -- Herkenhoff, K E -- Hurowitz, J A -- King, P L -- Le Mouelic, S -- Leshin, L A -- Leveille, R -- Lewis, K W -- Mangold, N -- Maurice, S -- Ming, D W -- Morris, R V -- Nachon, M -- Newsom, H E -- Ollila, A M -- Perrett, G M -- Rice, M S -- Schmidt, M E -- Schwenzer, S P -- Stack, K -- Stolper, E M -- Sumner, D Y -- Treiman, A H -- VanBommel, S -- Vaniman, D T -- Vasavada, A -- Wiens, R C -- Yingst, R A -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 24;343(6169):1244734. doi: 10.1126/science.1244734. Epub 2013 Dec 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geosciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324274" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bays ; Calcium Sulfate/analysis/chemistry ; Chlorine/analysis/chemistry ; *Exobiology ; Extraterrestrial Environment/*chemistry ; Ferrosoferric Oxide/analysis/chemistry ; Geologic Sediments/*chemistry ; Halogens/analysis/chemistry ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Iron/analysis/chemistry ; Magnesium/analysis/chemistry ; *Mars ; Silicates/analysis/chemistry ; Water/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-05-05
    Description: The rover Opportunity has investigated the rim of Endeavour Crater, a large ancient impact crater on Mars. Basaltic breccias produced by the impact form the rim deposits, with stratigraphy similar to that observed at similar-sized craters on Earth. Highly localized zinc enrichments in some breccia materials suggest hydrothermal alteration of rim deposits. Gypsum-rich veins cut sedimentary rocks adjacent to the crater rim. The gypsum was precipitated from low-temperature aqueous fluids flowing upward from the ancient materials of the rim, leading temporarily to potentially habitable conditions and providing some of the waters involved in formation of the ubiquitous sulfate-rich sandstones of the Meridiani region.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Squyres, S W -- Arvidson, R E -- Bell, J F 3rd -- Calef, F 3rd -- Clark, B C -- Cohen, B A -- Crumpler, L A -- de Souza, P A Jr -- Farrand, W H -- Gellert, R -- Grant, J -- Herkenhoff, K E -- Hurowitz, J A -- Johnson, J R -- Jolliff, B L -- Knoll, A H -- Li, R -- McLennan, S M -- Ming, D W -- Mittlefehldt, D W -- Parker, T J -- Paulsen, G -- Rice, M S -- Ruff, S W -- Schroder, C -- Yen, A S -- Zacny, K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 4;336(6081):570-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1220476.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. squyres@astro.cornell.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22556248" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Calcium Sulfate ; Extraterrestrial Environment ; Geological Phenomena ; *Mars ; Meteoroids ; Silicates ; Spacecraft ; *Water ; Zinc
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-12-11
    Description: The Curiosity rover discovered fine-grained sedimentary rocks, which are inferred to represent an ancient lake and preserve evidence of an environment that would have been suited to support a martian biosphere founded on chemolithoautotrophy. This aqueous environment was characterized by neutral pH, low salinity, and variable redox states of both iron and sulfur species. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus were measured directly as key biogenic elements; by inference, phosphorus is assumed to have been available. The environment probably had a minimum duration of hundreds to tens of thousands of years. These results highlight the biological viability of fluvial-lacustrine environments in the post-Noachian history of Mars.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grotzinger, J P -- Sumner, D Y -- Kah, L C -- Stack, K -- Gupta, S -- Edgar, L -- Rubin, D -- Lewis, K -- Schieber, J -- Mangold, N -- Milliken, R -- Conrad, P G -- DesMarais, D -- Farmer, J -- Siebach, K -- Calef, F 3rd -- Hurowitz, J -- McLennan, S M -- Ming, D -- Vaniman, D -- Crisp, J -- Vasavada, A -- Edgett, K S -- Malin, M -- Blake, D -- Gellert, R -- Mahaffy, P -- Wiens, R C -- Maurice, S -- Grant, J A -- Wilson, S -- Anderson, R C -- Beegle, L -- Arvidson, R -- Hallet, B -- Sletten, R S -- Rice, M -- Bell, J 3rd -- Griffes, J -- Ehlmann, B -- Anderson, R B -- Bristow, T F -- Dietrich, W E -- Dromart, G -- Eigenbrode, J -- Fraeman, A -- Hardgrove, C -- Herkenhoff, K -- Jandura, L -- Kocurek, G -- Lee, S -- Leshin, L A -- Leveille, R -- Limonadi, D -- Maki, J -- McCloskey, S -- Meyer, M -- Minitti, M -- Newsom, H -- Oehler, D -- Okon, A -- Palucis, M -- Parker, T -- Rowland, S -- Schmidt, M -- Squyres, S -- Steele, A -- Stolper, E -- Summons, R -- Treiman, A -- Williams, R -- Yingst, A -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 24;343(6169):1242777. doi: 10.1126/science.1242777. Epub 2013 Dec 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Geologic and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324272" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bays ; Carbon/analysis ; *Exobiology ; *Extraterrestrial Environment ; Geologic Sediments/analysis/classification ; Hydrogen/analysis ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Iron/analysis/chemistry ; *Mars ; Nitrogen/analysis ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Oxygen/analysis ; Phosphorus/analysis ; Salinity ; Sulfur/analysis/chemistry ; *Water
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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