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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-06-14
    Description: Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20 per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering them visible from space. Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate that E. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Read, Betsy A -- Kegel, Jessica -- Klute, Mary J -- Kuo, Alan -- Lefebvre, Stephane C -- Maumus, Florian -- Mayer, Christoph -- Miller, John -- Monier, Adam -- Salamov, Asaf -- Young, Jeremy -- Aguilar, Maria -- Claverie, Jean-Michel -- Frickenhaus, Stephan -- Gonzalez, Karina -- Herman, Emily K -- Lin, Yao-Cheng -- Napier, Johnathan -- Ogata, Hiroyuki -- Sarno, Analissa F -- Shmutz, Jeremy -- Schroeder, Declan -- de Vargas, Colomban -- Verret, Frederic -- von Dassow, Peter -- Valentin, Klaus -- Van de Peer, Yves -- Wheeler, Glen -- Emiliania huxleyi Annotation Consortium -- Dacks, Joel B -- Delwiche, Charles F -- Dyhrman, Sonya T -- Glockner, Gernot -- John, Uwe -- Richards, Thomas -- Worden, Alexandra Z -- Zhang, Xiaoyu -- Grigoriev, Igor V -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 11;499(7457):209-13. doi: 10.1038/nature12221. Epub 2013 Jun 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biological Sciences, California State University San Marcos, San Marcos, California 92096, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23760476" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Calcification, Physiologic ; Calcium/metabolism ; Carbonic Anhydrases/genetics/metabolism ; Ecosystem ; Genome/*genetics ; Haptophyta/classification/*genetics/*isolation & purification/metabolism ; Oceans and Seas ; Phylogeny ; Phytoplankton/*genetics ; Proteome/genetics ; Seawater
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Olsen, Jeanine L -- Rouze, Pierre -- Verhelst, Bram -- Lin, Yao-Cheng -- Bayer, Till -- Collen, Jonas -- Dattolo, Emanuela -- De Paoli, Emanuele -- Dittami, Simon -- Maumus, Florian -- Michel, Gurvan -- Kersting, Anna -- Lauritano, Chiara -- Lohaus, Rolf -- Topel, Mats -- Tonon, Thierry -- Vanneste, Kevin -- Amirebrahimi, Mojgan -- Brakel, Janina -- Bostrom, Christoffer -- Chovatia, Mansi -- Grimwood, Jane -- Jenkins, Jerry W -- Jueterbock, Alexander -- Mraz, Amy -- Stam, Wytze T -- Tice, Hope -- Bornberg-Bauer, Erich -- Green, Pamela J -- Pearson, Gareth A -- Procaccini, Gabriele -- Duarte, Carlos M -- Schmutz, Jeremy -- Reusch, Thorsten B H -- Van de Peer, Yves -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):331-5. doi: 10.1038/nature16548. Epub 2016 Jan 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Groningen Institute of Evolutionary Life Sciences (GELIFES), University of Groningen, PO Box 11103, 9700 CC Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB and Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium. ; GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research-Kiel, Evolutionary Ecology, Dusternbrooker Weg 20, D-24105 Kiel, Germany. ; Sorbonne Universite, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8227, Integrative Biology of Marine Models, Station Biologique de Roscoff, CS 90074, F-29688, Roscoff cedex, France. ; Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy. ; Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, 33100 Udine, Italy. ; INRA, UR1164 URGI-Research Unit in Genomics-Info, INRA de Versailles-Grignon, Route de Saint-Cyr, Versailles 78026, France. ; Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, Westfalische Wilhelms-University of Munster, Hufferstrasse 1, D-48149 Munster, Germany. ; Institute for Computer Science, Heinrich Heine University, D-40255 Duesseldorf, Germany. ; Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Bioinformatics Infrastructure for Life Sciences (BILS), University of Gothenburg, Medicinaregatan 18A, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden. ; Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Dr., #100, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA. ; Environmental and Marine Biology, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku/Abo, Finland. ; HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, 601 Genome Way NW, Huntsville, Alabama 35806, USA. ; Marine Ecology Group, Nord University, Postbox 1490, 8049 Bodo, Norway. ; Amplicon Express, 2345 NE Hopkins Ct., Pullman, Washington 99163, USA. ; School of Marine Science and Policy, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Delaware Biotechnology Institute, University of Delaware, 15-Innovation Way, Newark, Delaware 19711, USA. ; Marine Ecology and Evolution, Centre for Marine Sciences (CCMAR), University of Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal. ; King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Red Sea Research Center (RSRC), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia. ; University of Kiel, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Christian-Albrechts-Platz 4, 24118 Kiel, Germany. ; Genomics Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Hatfield Campus, Pretoria 0028, South Africa. ; Bioinformatics Institute Ghent, Ghent University, Ghent B-9000, Belgium.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26814964" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acclimatization/genetics ; Adaptation, Physiological/*genetics ; Cell Wall/chemistry ; Ethylenes/biosynthesis ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Duplication ; Genes, Plant/genetics ; Genome, Plant/*genetics ; Metabolic Networks and Pathways ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oceans and Seas ; Osmoregulation/genetics ; Phylogeny ; Plant Leaves/metabolism ; Plant Stomata/genetics ; Pollen/metabolism ; Salinity ; Salt-Tolerance/genetics ; *Seawater ; Seaweed/genetics ; Terpenes/metabolism ; Zosteraceae/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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