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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER MORTALITY ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; T-CELL ; ASSOCIATION ; LYMPHOMA ; HEALTH ; COUNTRIES ; leukemia ; FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA ; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; case-control study ; METAANALYSIS ; HYDROCARBONS ; methods ; SUBTYPES ; B-CELL ; chronic lymphocytic leukaemia ; ORGANIC-SOLVENTS ; BENZENE EXPOSURE ; MULTINATIONAL COHORT ; PETROLEUM WORKERS ; TRICHLOROETHYLENE
    Abstract: Background Several studies have suggested an association between occupational exposure to solvents and lymphoma risk. However, findings are inconsistent and the role of specific chemicals is not known. Objective To investigate the role of occupational exposure to organic solvents in the aetiology of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) and its major subtypes, as well as Hodgkin's lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma. Methods 2348 lymphoma cases and 2462 controls participated in a case-control study in six European countries. A subset of cases were reviewed by a panel of pathologists to ensure diagnostic consistency. Exposure to solvents was assessed by industrial hygienists and occupational experts based on a detailed occupational questionnaire. Results Risk of follicular lymphoma significantly increased with three independent metrics of exposure to benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) (combined p = 4 x 10(-7)) and to styrene (p = 1 x 10(-5)), and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) risk increased with exposure to solvents overall (p = 4 x 10(-6)), BTX (p = 5 x 10(-5)), gasoline (p = 8 x 10(-5)) and other solvents (p = 2 x 10(-6)). Risk of B-NHL for ever exposure to solvents was not elevated (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.3), and that for CLL and follicular lymphoma was 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.6) and 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.7), respectively. Exposure to benzene accounted, at least partially, for the association observed with CLL risk. Hodgkin's lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma did not show an association with solvent exposure. Conclusion This analysis of a large European dataset confirms a role of occupational exposure to solvents in the aetiology of B-NHL, and particularly, CLL. It is suggested that benzene is most likely to be implicated, but we cannot exclude the possibility of a role for other solvents in relation to other lymphoma subtypes, such as follicular lymphoma. No association with risk of T-cell lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma was shown
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20447988
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Sardinia ; childhood IDDM ; incidence ; statistics ; epidemiology ; Bayesian analysis ; geographical distribution.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Analysis of the geographical variation of risk for a disease is a key issue in descriptive epidemiology and may provide useful suggestions for planning further studies to identify the underlying causes. We adopted a Bayesian approach to investigate the geographical distribution of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) incidence rate across Sardinia. Data on incidence of IDDM in children aged under 15 years (619 IDDM cases) in Sardinia was obtained by the Sardinian Eurodiab ACE register. The overall completeness of ascertainment was: 91.3 %. The average yearly standardized incidence rate for the years 1989–1994 was 33.24 per 100 000 (95 % C. I. 30.60, 35.88), which is the second highest in Europe after Finland. Sex and age-specific risks were higher in males than in females. Considering the variation of IDDM risk according to the age at diagnosis, the risk profile increased up to the 13th year of age for both sexes, being steeper in males. The degree of geographical variation in IDDM risk was small with a slight difference between the highest and the lowest standardized rate across the map. Indeed, even the municipalities at lowest risk in Sardinia showed a risk higher than most European countries. The Sardinian population is genetically atypical, characterized by genetic homogeneity and marked susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Our finding of a small geographical variation within the island coupled with a marked temporal trend previously observed in data on military conscripts could be interpreted as evidence of a relatively recent environmental aetiological factor that was uniformly distributed across the island and had its effect in a genetically predisposed population. [Diabetologia (1998) 41: 221–227]
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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