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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Melanin ; Melanosomes ; Ultrastructure ; Infrared spectrophotometry ; X-ray diffraction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Melanosomes and isolated melanosomal fragments (melanin particles) originating from gangliocytes (substantia nigra), astroglia (melanosis cerebelli), and melanocytes (melanotic meningeoma; metastases of melanoblastoma; melanosis thalami of the goat) were compared with synthetic melanins prepared from dopamine and serotonin, respectively. Samples were examined by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis according to Debye-Scherrer and by infrared spectrophotometry, and the results were evaluated with regard to characteristic features as they may relate to specific cell types or chemical structures. On electron microscopy all three types of melanosomes could be differentiated unequivocally as could the two synthetic melanins. Thus, there were similarities between synthetic melanin from dopamine and the gliogenic melanins of the cerebellum; the synthetic melanin from serotonin resembled melanin of melanocytes. X-ray diffraction analysis yielded 2-4 Debye diffraction rings with all human and synthetic samples, suggesting short range orders between 3.8 to 5 Å the sample obtained from a goat with thalamic melanosis showed a specific reflex pattern. While diffraction patterns of some melanins were partially identical, in particular that of melanin from dopamine and melanin of substantia nigra and dentate nucleus, respectively, they were different for the various melanocytic melanins. Further investigations are required to determine whether these differences are due to disparities in basic chemical structures or conformations or else, to particular compositional features of the various types of melanocytes as they arise from benign or malignant tumors or a specific species. Infrared spectrophotometry at higher wave numbers revealed the well known patterns of melanins, which are not, however, very suitable, for their further differentiation. At lower wave numbers (‘fingerprinting’) melanin of substantia nigra and the glial melanin in melanosis cerebelli yielded additional absorption bands of identical configuration. In contrast to melanin from dopamine, melanin from serotonin exhibited a closely similar absorption pattern in this spectral range, suggesting that the neuroectodermal melanins may contain a component possibly arising from serotonin.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Canine distemper encephalitis (CDE) ; Immunopathology ; Demyelination ; Immunoglobulin ; Local Immune response
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The brains of 14 dogs with canine distemper encephalitis were examined with immunohistologic techniques to search for immunogobulin in demyelinating lesions. Four types of lesions presumably representing a temporal sequence of lesion development were distinguished. Immunohistologic findings included immunoglobulin bearing lymphoid cells, amorphous Ig containing material, immunoglobulin bound to the tissue and immunoglobulin containing macrophages and astrocytes. The humoral immune response was absent or very minimal in acute lesions and very intense in chronic lesions. It was concluded that early demyelination in canine distemper encephalitis occurs in the absence of a local humoral immune response but that this response may aggravate and accelerate myelin destruction in the later stages of the disease.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Chronic canine distemper infection ; Inflammation ; Virus ; Clearance ; Demyelination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of canine distemper virus (CDV) antigen was examined in the brains of 14 dogs with chronic nervous distemper using a monoclonal antibody against a major viral protein. In ten of these dogs, neutralizing anti-CDV antibody titers were determined in serum and unconcentrated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In 19% of the inflammatory demyelinating lesions, large amounts of CDV antigen were found; in 34% of these lesions only residual traces of virus were seen and in almost half of the lesions (47%) no CDV could be demonstrated. In four dogs neutralizing antibodies were found in the serum only; in one dog in the CSF only and in 5 dogs both in serum and CSF. Because of the correlation between the presence of inflammation, intrathecal antiviral antibodies and disappearance of CDV from the lesions, it was concluded that the inflammatory response in distemper is associated with viral clearance from the lesions. Associated immune-mediated cytotoxic reactions could explain exacerbation of the initial virus-induced demyelinating lesions. Despite the presence of an apparently effective intrathecal antiviral immune response, fresh non-inflammatory lesions as a result of viral replication and spread in the white matter coexisted with inflammatory ones in which viral clearance had taken place. The role and mechanism of such virus persistence are discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Canine distemper ; Encephalomyelitis ; Malacia ; Pseudomyxovirus ; Crystalloid aggregates ; Tubuloreticular aggregates ; Picormavirus ; Arenavirus ; Vaccination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A 4-months-old, male, healthy dog developed CNS-symptoms 10 days after the second vaccination with live, attenuated distemper and canine hepatitis virus. The animal was euthanized after 2 weeks of illness. Light and electron microscopic examination of the CNS showed a partly necrotizing encephalomyelitis with numerous intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, and the presence of probable pseudomyxovirus nucleocapsids and of crystalloid and tubuloreticular aggregates. Although there was conformity of inclusion bodies and probable viral structures as revealed by electron microscopy, the latter showed a much wider distribution. In addition, viral structures of a different type were found in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Several morphological criteria led to the supposition that they are Picornaviruses, or possibly Arenaviruses. It is thought that their role in the disease process was at best an indirect one.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Mannosidosis ; α-Mannosidase deficiency ; Hypomyelination ; Storage disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Several kittens in a family of Persian cats had a metabolic storage disease. Clinically the disorder was characterized by hepatomegaly, neurological sings and early death. The microscopic lesions consisted of widespread vacuolation of neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system and in liver cells. Electronmicroscopically the lesions consisted of intracytoplasmic accumulation of membrane-bound “empty” vacuoles. In addition to the storage disease, poor myelination of the cerebral white matter was found. The defect was reproduced in breeding trials. On biochemical analysis of brain tissue, deficient function of the enzymeα-mannosidase was detected. The clinical and pathological features of mannosidosis in Persian cats were compared to similar defects in other species.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 32 (1975), S. 87-89 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Actinomyces viscosus ; Epidural space ; Spinal cord ; Cat ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a 3 year old female domestic cat a suppurative, granulomatous lesion of the tail and sacral area penetrated into the epidural space, causing paraplegia. A. viscosus was isolated from the inflammatory tissues. A comparative light and electron-microscopic study of the bacterial elements and the architecture of the granules (Drusen) show that the latter are in-vivo microcolonies of the agent.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Alexander's diseases (AD) ; Encephalopathy ; Rosenthal fibers (RFs) ; Sheep
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the brain of a 4-year-old ewe extensive Rosenthal fiber (RF) formation was found in a subpial and subependymal location and in particular in the cerebellar white matter. Here, the RFs were concentrated around blood vessels, and there was diffuse myelin rarefaction. The animal had given birth to two lambs, which were still healthy at the age of 3 weeks when their mother died after a short illness with astasia and alternating states of somnolence and hyperexcitability.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Brain Tumor ; Dog ; Immunocytochemistry ; GFAP ; MBP ; MAG
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Seventy-four canine neuroectodermal tumors were examined immunocytochemically for the presence of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Eleven oligodendrogliomas were examined for the presence of myelim basic protein (MBP) and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Twenty-three tumors, including ten astrocytomas, one ependymoma, two glioblastomas, one case of gliomatosis, and nine poorly differentiated gliomas were positive for GFAP. Two astrocytomas, eleven oligodendrogliomas, eight ependymomas, four choroid plexus papillomas, two medulloblastomas, one glioblastoma, nine poorly differentiated gliomas, six cases of gliomatosis, and three unclassified tumors were GFAP-negative. In six tumors (including four that were classified as astrocytoma) GFAP staining was equivocal. All oligodendrogliomas were MBP-negative but three expressed MAG. It was concluded that many canine gliomas are not only morphologically but also mmunocytochemically similar to human gliomas, but that a larger proportion of canine neuroctodermal growths are undifferentiated tumors.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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