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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 9 single crystal sapphire dental implants were installed bilaterally into pre-extracted areas in the lower jaw of two beagle dogs and histologically analysed after 180 days in situ. 8 implants were stable and radiographs disclosed complete bone healing. Light-, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the stable implants were surrounded by a mineralizing bone boundary and a mutosa nearly free from inflammatory cell infiltrations. The 9th implant was mobile and surrounded by a non-mineralized connective tissue capsule containing bundles of collagen. The ultrastructure of the mucosa surrounding the implants closely resembled the mucosa surrounding the tooth. Histometric analysis of the alveolar bone surrounding the stable implants revealed that the value of the bone contact surface ranged from 37.1%% to 86.9% (mean value 61.8%) at the light microscopic level.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Soft tissues surrounding Brånemark titanium implants and single crystal sapphire implants were studied by conventional light- and transmission electron microscopy and by immunohistochemical markers for cytokeratin, protein S-100, Factor VIII and KP1. Histological sections of biopsies obtained from clinically healthy peri-implant mucosa were separated into a keratinized outer implant epithelium and an inner, non-keratinized epithelium, both immunoreactive towards cytokeratin. The inner implant epithelium terminated in a junctional epithelium, apically only a few cell layers thiih. The cells adjacent to the implant showed a condensed cytoplasm, resembling hemidesmosomes. In the underlying connective tissue, rich in fibroblasts and factor VIII immunoreactive blood vessels, the bundles of collagen ran in different directions. S-100 immunoreactive nerve structures were more frequently found beneath the outer than the inner implant epithelium. Inflammatory cell infiltrates, some KP1 positive, were observed in the apical parts of the inner implant epithelium. S-100 positive Langerhans' cells were present mainly within the the outer implant epithelium. For the two implant systems, the techniques disclosed no qualitative structural differences in the adjacent soft tissues.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A total of 190 single crystal sapphire implants, 85 short (4S9S) and 105 long (4S9L), were monitored with panoramic and intraoral radiographs for 3 years. The implants were used as abutments for overdentures in edentulous mandibles in 51 patients. Within the first year, 2 patients lost one implant each due to pain and lack of osseointegration. Neither was replaced and the superstructures remained stable. At baseline registration, i.e., immediately after the prosthetic installation, the bone height relative to the length of the implant was calculated. The mean bone implant score (BIS) was 63.55±1.34%(mean±SE). BIS decreased during the first year 62.18±1.51%. At the 2- and 3-year recordings, the mean BIS were 61.81±1.58% and 61.73±1.63%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in BIS changes over the 3-year period or between men and women. The decrease in mean BIS was greater for implants in the premolar region than in the incisor region and for short implants than for long implants.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Successful attachment of the oral tissues to an endosseous dental implant relies in part on its chemical stability, nontoxic properties and maintenance of normal cell functions in the surrounding tissues. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate these 3 factors experimentally. The corrosion resistance of single crystal sapphire (a -αl,O,) implants was analysed with respect to the release of aluminium ions; no ions could be detected in the test solutions. The influence of single crystal sapphire on the behaviour of human epithelial cells and fibroblasts derived from biopsies of the oral mucosa, was studied. The cells were cultured in chemically defined or in low serum-containing media. Compared to the corresponding control cultures, no effects on cell morphology and growth characteristics were observed. Sapphire rods were in-serted subcutaneously into rats and tissue responses were examined after 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-implantation. None or slight reactions were found in the tissues. The combined evaluation of these experimental approaches indicates that single crystal sapphire is a material well suited for biological implantation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 86 patients, in 2 Scandinavian centers, participated in a prospective study of mandibular edentulism, treated with overdentures supported by Bioceram sapphire implants. Implant success and prosthesis stability as well as parameters for peri-implant health were evaluated. Masticatory function and complications were also documented. The study began in 1982 and clinical treatment of the last patients was completed in 1991. The patients have been followed for at least 3 years, and up to 12 years. 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Of the initial 324 implants, 7 implants failed before prosthetic treatment. 3 patients lost 1 implant each within the 1st year, and 4 patients lost all 4 implants. 16 implants were lost between 36 and 42 months in function, due to lack of osseointegration and pain. The loss of implants could be attributable to an association, not statistically verified, between bone quality and anatomy, with heavy smoking as a risk factor. Based on the remaining implants, the cumulative implant success rates were 95.2%, 91.3%, 91.3%, 91.3% at 3, 5, 10 and 12 year follow-up, respectively. The cumulative success rates for overdentures were 96.4%, 92.8%, 92.8% and 92.8% respectively, for the same follow-up periods. Indices for the health of the peri-implant mucosa disclosed no serious inflammatory reactions in the surrounding soft tissues. Patient satisfaction with this form of oral rehabilitation was high in all but 2 patients who experienced discomfort.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The 19 patients included in this study had all been successfully treated for total or partial edentulism with single crystal sapphire implants as retention for overdentures or fixed bridges. As there is a need for more reliable non-invasive parameters for detecting changes surrounding endosseous implants, the aim of this study was to assess the content and the activity of neutrophils in crevicular fluid samples from 3 categories of sites: (1) crevices around implants from edentulous patients (2) crevices around implants in partially edentulous patients, and (3) crevices surrounding teeth. Fluid samples were taken with paper strips from 9 partially edentulous and 10 edentulous patients and the volume measured with a Periotron 6000@. Elastase activity was measured as a marker of neutrophil activity and lactoferrin concentration as a marker of the number of neutrophils. Elastase activity per pl and lactoferrin concentration was, despite similar clinical and radiographic signs, significantly higher in samples from crevices surrounding teeth and implants in the partially edentulous patients compared to samples from crevices around implants in the totally edentulous patients. There were no differences between teeth and implants in partially edentulous patients. The increased elastase activity and lactofemn concentration indicates a higher neutrophil activity in patients with remaining teeth.〈section xml:id="abs1-1"〉〈title type="main"〉RésuméLes dix-neuf patients faisant partie de cette étude ont tous été traités avec succès pour une édentation partielle ou totale avec des implants unitaires en saphir en tant que piliers de prothèses aniovibles ou inamovibles. Comme il est nécessaire d'avoir des parametres sfirs et non-invasifs pour detecter les variations entourant les implants le but de cette étude a été d'analyser le contenu et l'activité des neutrophiles dans le fluide créviculaire de trois catégories de sites: (1) de sillons autour des implants de patients édentés, (2) de sillons autour d'implants de patients édentés partiellement et (3) de sillons autour de dents. Des échantillons crøviculaires ont été pris avec des bandelettes de papier de neuf édentés partiels et de dix édentés, et le volume mesuré avec le Periotron 6000. L'activitè de l'Clastase a été mesurée comme marqueur de l'activité neutrophile et la concentration en lactoférrine comme marqueur du nombre de neutrophiles. L'activité de l'élastase par μl et la concentration en lactofkrrine Ctaient, malgrk des signes cliniques et radiogra-phiques semblables, significativenient, plus importantes dans les échantillons provenant de sillons autour de dents et d'implants chez les édentes partiels qu'autour d'implants chez les patients édentés. Il n'y avait aucune différence entre dent et implant chez les patients partiellement édentés. L'augmentation de I'activité de I'élastase et la concentration en lactoférrine indiquent une activité des neutrophiles plus importantes chez les patients ayant dentés.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉ZusammenfassungAlle 19 Patienten, welche in die Untersuchung einbezogen wurden, waren zuvor erfolgreich mit Hybridprothesen oder festsitzenden Brücken auf Einzelkristallsapphireimplantaten versorgt worden. Da ein Bedürfnis nach mehr nichtinvasiven verlässlichen Parametern zur Aufdeckung von Veränderungen um enossale implantate besteht, bestand das Ziel dieser Untersuchung darin, den Gehalt und die Aktivität von neutrophilen Granulozyten in SulcusfuUssigkeitsproben von 3 verschiedenen Kategorien von Stellen zu messen. 1) Sulci um implantate bei zahnlosen Patienten 2) Sulci um implantate bei teilbezahnten Patienten und 3) Sulci um Zähne. Die Flüssigkeitsproben wurden mittels Papirstreifen bei 9 teilbezahnten und bei 10 zahnlosen Patienten entnommen und das Volumen wurde mit dem Periotron 6000 gemessen. Als Marker für die Aktivitat der neutrophilen wurde die Elastaseaktivität bestimmt und die Lactoferrinkonzentration diente als Marker für die Anzahl an neutrophilen. Die Elastaseaktivität per μl und die Lactoferrinkonzentration waren, obwohl klinisch und radiologisch keine Unterschiede bestanden, signifikant höher in den Proben aus den Sulci von Zähnen und Implantaten bei teilbezahnten Patienten im Vergleich zu Proben aus Sulci von Implantaten bei zahnlosen Patienten. Zwischen Zähnen und Implantaten bei teilbezahnten Patienten bestanden keine Unterschiede. Die er-höhte Elastaseaktivitat und Lactoferrinkonzentration bedeutet eine grössere Aktivität der Neutrophilen bei Patienten mit verbleibenden Zähnen.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉ResumenLos 19 pacientes encluidos en este estudio habian sido tratados con éxito a causa de edentulismo total o parcial con implantes unitarios de zafiro como retención para sobredebtaduras o puentes fijos. Al existir una necesidad de parámetros no invasivos mas fiables para detectar cambios alrededor de implantes endooseos, la intención de este estudio fue de la valorar el contenido y actividad de los neutrófilos en las muestras de liquido crevicular de tres categorias de sitios: (1) Crévices alrededor de implantes de pacientes edéntulos (2) crévices alrededor de implantes en pacientes parcialmente edéntulos y (3) crévises alrededor de dientes. Se tomaron muestras de fluido con tiras de papei de nueve pacientes parcialmente edéntulos y diez pacientes edéntulos y el volumen sa midió con un Periotron 6000. Se midió la actividad de la elastasa como un marcador de la actividad neutrófilia y la concentración de lactoferrina, como un marcador del número de neutrófilos. La actividad de la elastasa por μl y la concentración de lactofemna fue, a pesar de los signos clinicos y radiogágficos similares, significativamente más aka en las muestras de la crévices alrededor de los dientes y de los implantes en pacientes parcialmente edéntulos en comparación con muestras de los crévices alrededor de los implantes en los pacientes totalmente edéntulos. No hubo diferencias entre dientes e implantes en los pacientes parcialmente edéntulos. La actividad aumentada de la elastasa y de la concentración de la lactoferrina indican una mayor actividad de los neutrófilos en los pacientes con dientes remanentes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Cylindrical implants, made of a dense yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia/hydroxyapatite composite and a dense pure hydroxyapatite ceramic, were implanted in the mandibular bone of two beagles and the femurs of eight rabbits. Some of the cylindrical implant surfaces were drilled with a laser beam to create 200×200 μm2 dimples. The bone ingrowth and the effect of bone in the dimples on the retention of the implant in bone were studied. The histological evaluation revealed that new bone was formed in close apposition to the composite surface both in the dogs and the rabbits. The dimpled spaces of the composite were filled with the newly formed bone. The composite with dimpled surface resulted in a higher bone-bonding strength than that of the composite with a smooth surface. The bone-bonding strength was even higher than that of pure hydroxyapatite. This study showed that the laser beam drilling technique was a good machining method to produce an implant with defined surface macrostructure. The combination of bioactivity and mechanical retention in the implant material resulted in a more stable implant.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Fifty-four cylinders (2.8 mm in diameter) machined from hot isostatically pressed titania (TI) and titania-hydroxyapatite (TI/HA-15 vol%) sintered at 925°C, as well as commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti), were implanted in the fermoral cortical bone of New Zealand white rabbits for 1, 3 and 12 months. The shear strength between bone and implant was measured by a push-out test. The TI/HA composite showed a significantly higher bonding strength to bone compared to c.p. Ti at all times, while no differences were observed between TI and c. p. Ti at 1 and 3 months after implantation. Titania-based materials had a significantly higher bonding strength than that of c.p. Ti one year after implantation. The results indicate that bioactivity of HA in TI/HA composite contributes to the early bone apposition reflected by high bonding strength, while the stability of the oxide, determines the development of long-term bonding strength. Both effects may be explained by the level and type of ions released from the ceramic implant. HA has a positive conduction to bone ingrowth while TI has a limited interaction to the bone apposition due to the extraordinary low ion release in vivo. Under light microscopy, similar patterns of bone-implant interfaces were seen from titania-based materials and c.p. Ti in 3-month samples, indicating high biocompatibility of these materials. However, histological evaluation by light microscope cannot identify the differences between physical contact and chemical bonding of implant-bone interface, and thus does not give information on bonding mechanism and the level of shear stresses developed.
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