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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words CADASIL ; Electron microscopy ; Granular osmiophilic material ; αB crystallin ; Heat ; shock proteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a non-arterio-atherosclerotic, non-amyloidotic arteriopathy affecting preferentially the small arteries and arterioles of the brain. The morphologic hallmark is the presence of a characteristic granular alteration of the arterial media that ultrastructurally corresponds to the accumulation of electron-dense material surrounding the smooth muscle cells. Although the presence of this granular osmiophilic material (GOM) was originally described as limited to brain vessels, identical electron microscopic findings have been demonstrated in the media of peripheral tissue arteries, allowing for a pathologic diagnosis of the disease by a simple skin, muscle or nerve biopsy. We report some atypical features identified in our CADASIL patients that broaden the phenotypic expression of this disease. Firstly, we identified a cortical infarct in an otherwise typical CADASIL patient. Secondly, we observed GOM in skin arteries of a 30-year-old man with hemiplegic migraine, the son of a woman who had died with CADASIL. This confirms that it may be possible to diagnose the disease at a preclinical stage by the ultrastructural evaluation of peripheral tissue biopsy material, particularly for individuals for whom there is a supporting family history. Thirdly, ultrastructural examination of the skin, and subcutaneous and striated muscle of an unrelated and apparently sporadic patient with neuropathologic and neuroradiologic evidence of CADASIL in meningeal and cerebral vessels failed to reveal diagnostic lesions in peripheral arteries. Thus, the possibility of a false-negative pathologic diagnosis in patients with a clinicoradiologic diagnosis of CADASIL, if one relies solely on a peripheral tissue biopsy, does exist. Additionally, we have identified heat shock proteins (Hsp70 and αB crystallin) and ubiquitin in the vascular myocytes of affected arteries. αB crystallin also seemed to be deposited extracellularly, which suggests that GOM also might be immunoreactive for αB crystallin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 36.40 ; 35.20
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Metal clusters have been produced using a laser evaporation source. A Nd-YAG laser beam focused onto a solid silver rod was used to evaporate the material, which was then cooled to form clusters with the help of a pulsed high pressure He beam. TOF mass spectra of these clusters reveal a strong occurrence of small and medium sized clusters (n〈100). Clusters were also deposited onto grid supported thin layers of carbon-films which were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Very high resolution pictures of these grids were used to analyze the size distribution and the structure of the deposited clusters. The diffraction pattern caused by crystalline structure of the clusters reveals 3-and 5-fold symmetries as well asfcc bulk structure. This can be explained in terms of icosahedron and cuboctahedron type clusters deposited on the surface of the carbon layer. There is strong evidence that part of these cluster geometries had already been formed before the depostion process. The non-linear dependence of the cluster size and the cluster density on the generating conditions is discussed. Therefore the samples were observed in HREM in the stable DEEKO 100 microscope of the Fritz-Haber-Institut operating at 100 KV with the spherical aberrationc S =0.5 mm. The quality of the pictures was improved by using the conditions of minimum phase contrast hollow cone illumination. This procedure led to a minimum of phase contrast artefacts. Among the well-crystallized particles were a great amount of five- and three-fold symmetries, icosahedra and cuboctahedra respectively. The largest clusters with five- and three-fold symmetries have been found with diameters of 7 nm; the smallest particles displaying the same undistorted symmetries were of about 2 mm. Even smaller ones with strong distortions could be observed although their classification is difficult. The quality of the images was improved by applying Fourier filtering techniques.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2129
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Postoperative Schmerztherapie ; Epidural ; Bupivacain ; Fentanyl ; Physikochemische Stabilität ; Key words Postoperative analgesia ; Epidural ; Bupivacaine ; Fentanyl ; Physicochemical stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine with the opioid fentanyl represents an effective analgesic method in the therapy of strong postoperative pain after major surgery. Preparation of the required infusion solution in syringes with a volume of 50 ml immediately prior to administration is routinely performed by nursing staff in Germany. The effort required for the preparation is associated with logistical and pharmaceutical difficulties. The preparation of a mixture of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.06% and fentanyl 0.0002% in 250 ml infusion bags at the pharmacy of the University Hospital Mainz is described. To determine the physicochemical stability, the concentration of bupivacaine-HCl and fentanyl was assessed using HPLC over a period of 32 days; in addition the pH values were determined. After 32 days 95% of the bupivacaine hydrochloride and fentanyl baseline values were recorded. The pH baseline value had decreased from 5.48–5.52 to 0.5–0.7 units. The measured values confirm the physicochemical stability of the mixture of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.06% and fentanyl 0.0002% over a period of 32 days. The infusion bag can be stored for 4 weeks at room temperature.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die kontinuierliche epidurale Infusionsanalgesie ist eine effektive Möglichkeit zur Therapie starker postoperativer Schmerzen. Es ist in Deutschland üblich, daß geeignete Infusionslösungen unmittelbar vor der Anwendung durch Pflegekräfte zubereitet werden. Der damit verbundene Aufwand wirft logistische und pharmazeutische Probleme auf. Es wird beschrieben, wie in der Apotheke des Universitätsklinikums Mainz Infusionsbeutel zur Mischinfusion von Bupivacain-HCl 0,06% und Fentanyl 0,0002% mit einem Füllvolumen von jeweils 250 ml hergestellt und vorrätig gelagert werden. Durch die epidurale Infusion kommt eine ausreichende Analgesie zustande. Zur Untersuchung der physikalisch-chemischen Stabilität wurden über einen Zeitraum von 32 Tagen der pH-Wert und die Konzentration der Arzneistoffe im Infusionsbeutel mittels HPLC bestimmt. Nach 32 Tagen waren noch 95% der Ausgangskonzentration von Bupivacain-HCl und Fentanyl vorhanden, der initiale pH-Wert von 5,48–5,52 war um 0,5–0,7 Einheiten abgefallen. Mit diesen Messungen ist eine ausreichende physikochemische Stabilität der Mischinfusionslösung belegt. Die Anwendung der Infusionsbeutel ist für den Pflegebereich, aber auch für die Ärzte komfortabel und sicher. Ökonomische Vorteile liegen auf der Hand.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0005-2728
    Keywords: (Spinach) ; Exciton trapping ; Fluorescence lifetime ; Pheophytin photoaccumulation ; Photosystem II ; Radical pair recombination
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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