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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7330
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The program for in vitro fertilization at Bourn Hall began in October 1980. Various types of infertility have been treated during this time using the natural menstrual cycle or stimulation of follicular growth with antiestrogens and gonadotrophins. Follicular growth and maturation are assayed by urinary estrogens and LH, monitored regularly during the later follicular stage. Many patients had an endogenous LH surge; others needed an injection of HCG to induce ovulation. All oocytes were recovered by laparoscopy. Wide variations occurred in the time interval between the start of the LH surge and oocyte recovery and between oocyte recovery and insemination. Embryos taken between ooc one- and the eight-cell stage were replaced into their mother, no standard procedure being adopted for all patients. The results of all treatments including patient's responses during the follicular and luteal phases, oocyte recovery, fertilization, cleavage, replacement, implantation, abortion, and birth and the effect of factors such as replacing two or more embryos, maternal age, and previous obstetric history are described in detail. The incidence of implantation after embryo replacement improved from 16.5% initially to 30% currently. More than 118 babies have been born, and many pregnancies are continuing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7330
    Keywords: in vitro fertilization ; zona-free hamster eggs ; failure of fertilization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The zona-free hamster egg test was carried out using spermatozoa from 15 men which consistently failed to fertilize their wives' oocytes in vitro. Spermatozoa from nine of these men fertilized hamster eggs in vitro, indicating that positive results in this assay are an unreliable guide to human in vitro fertilization. Donor spermatozoa were needed to fertilize the wife's oocytes in three of these cases. Nevertheless, the proportion of hamster egg penetration was significantly lower compared with spermatozoa from 15 men who could fertilize their wives' oocytes in vitro. The hamster assay also failed to indicate the establishment of pregnancy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7330
    Keywords: human in vitro fertilization ; implantation ; abortion ; follicular stimulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The incidence of pregnancy and abortion was analyzed in 1679 patients having embryos replaced after oocyte recovery and in vitro fertilization in order to alleviate their infertility. In these patients, 364 pregnancies were achieved and 108 abortions occurred. Patients were treated either on their natural cycle, having a spontaneous luteinizing hormone (LH) surge to induce ovalation, or after ovarian stimulation using clomiphene citrate alone or in combination with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG). The data were assessed in relation to the numbers of embryos replaced, the follicular stimulation and ovulation induction regime used; the dose of gonadotropins and the dose of antiestrogens, and the age of the patient. The most successful treatment for the number of live births per laparoscopy was the use of clomiphene citrate in combination with human menopausal gonadotropin followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce follicular maturation and ovulation. This treatment produced a significantly higher (P〈0.001) number of patients with multiple embryos (86.5%). There was no significant effect on pregnancy or abortion with alow (〈400-mg) or high (≥400-mg) dose of clomiphene. The total dose of gonadotropins used did not influence the incidence of pregnancy or abortion. The use of hCG with hMG induced a significant (P〈0.01) positive effect on the incidence of pregnancy. The incidence of pregnancy showed a progressive decline with increasing age but there was a highly significant (P〈0.01) increase in the incidence of abortion with increasing age. With increasing numbers of embryos replaced, up to three, the incidence of deliveries increased. The most successful follicular stimulation regime and the replacement of three embryos produced about 25% of the patients delivering normal healthy babies after embryo replacement.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7330
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The incidence of cell injury, embryo survival, and implantation following cryopreservation of zygotes and two- to five-cell embryos was studied in 100 patients in order to evaluate the effect of duration of storage. The incidence of individual cell survival was 58% regardless of the length of time kept in liquid nitrogen or the stage of the embryo at freezing. There were 104 of 208 (50%) thawed embryos that survived completely intact, and of those, 24 implanted successfully. Twenty-one (21%) patients had a clinical pregnancy; two of them miscarried. Neither the survival of zygotes or cleaved embryos upon thawing nor the incidence of implantation was affected by the duration of cryostorage.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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