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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROSTATE ; SAMPLE ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; MEN ; smoking ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; US ; NETHERLANDS ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; physical activity ; SERUM ; REGRESSION ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; USA ; HORMONES ; TESTOSTERONE ; older men ; FREE ESTRADIOL ; 3RD NATIONAL-HEALTH ; NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY ; BONE-MINERAL DENSITY ; URINARY-TRACT SYMPTOMS ; HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN ; FREE TESTOSTERONE ; sex hormone-binding globulin ; COGNITIVE FUNCTION ; REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE ; SURVEY NHANES-III
    Abstract: We evaluated the associations of smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity with sex steroid hormone concentrations among 1,275 men a parts per thousand yen20 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We compared geometric mean concentrations across levels of smoking, alcohol, and physical activity using multiple linear regression. Current smokers had higher total testosterone (5.42, 5.10, and 5.26 ng/ml in current, former, and never smokers), free testosterone (0.110, 0.102, and 0.104 ng/ml), total estradiol (40.0, 34.5, and 33.5 pg/ml), and free estradiol (1.05, 0.88, and 0.84 pg/ml) compared with former and never smokers (all p a parts per thousand currency sign 0.05). Men who consumed a parts per thousand yen1 drink/day had lower SHBG than men who drank less frequently (31.5 vs. 34.8 nmol/l, p = 0.01); total (p-trend = 0.08) and free testosterone (p-trend = 0.06) increased with number of drinks per day. Physical activity was positively associated with total (p-trend = 0.01) and free testosterone (p-trend = 0.05). In this nationally representative sample of men, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity were associated with hormones and SHBG, thus these factors should be considered as possible confounders or upstream variables in studies of hormones and men's health, including prostate cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19277882
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; neoplasms ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; cohort study ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; MECHANISM ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; nutrition ; HEART-DISEASE ; ESTRADIOL ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; ELDERLY-MEN ; PHASE ; HORMONES ; HORMONE LEVELS ; TESTOSTERONE ; prospective ; older men ; cardiovascular diseases ; androgens ; sex hormone-binding globulin ; journals ; ADULT MEN ; ALL-CAUSE ; CRITICAL ILLNESS ; LOW SERUM TESTOSTERONE ; NHANES-III
    Abstract: The association of sex hormone levels with mortality over a median of 16 years of follow-up was evaluated in a prospective cohort study. The study included 1,114 US men who participated in phase 1 (1988-1991) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Mortality Study and had no history of cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality associated with a decrease in hormone concentration equal to the difference between the 90th and 10th percentiles of the sex hormone distributions were estimated by using proportional hazards regression. The hazard ratios associated with low free testosterone and low bioavailable testosterone levels were 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.87) and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.15, 2.02), respectively, for follow-up between baseline and year 9; they were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.72) and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.72), respectively, for follow-up between year 9 and year 18. Men with low free and bioavailable testosterone levels may have a higher risk of mortality within 9 years of hormone measurement. Future studies should be conducted to fully characterize the association of low free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations and mortality in men and to describe the mechanism underlying the association
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20083549
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  • 3
    Keywords: MODEL ; MODELS ; POPULATION ; RISK ; TIME ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; PLASMA ; AGE ; MEN ; nutrition ; MELLITUS ; albumin ; SERUM ; ASSOCIATIONS ; development ; LEVEL ; PHASE ; TESTOSTERONE ; odds ratio ; RISK-FACTOR ; ANDROGEN ; PREDICT ; MIDDLE-AGED MEN ; HORMONE-BINDING-GLOBULIN ; CORONARY-ARTERY-DISEASE ; ENDOGENOUS SEX-HORMONES ; FREE TESTOSTERONE
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE-Low levels of androgens in men may play a role in the development of diabetes; however, few studies have examined the association between androgen concentration and diabetes in men in the general population. The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that low normal levels of total, free, and bioavailable testosterone are associated with prevalent diabetes in men. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-The study sample included 1,413 adult men aged 〉= 20 years who participated in the morning session of the first phase of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the U.S. Bioavailable and free testosterone levels were calculated from serum total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and albumin concentrations. RESULTS-in multivariable models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and adiposity, men in the first tertile (lowest) of free testosterone level were four times more likely to have prevalent diabetes compared with men in the third tertile (odds ratio 4.12 [95% CI 1.25-13.55]). Similarly, men in the first tertile of bioavailable testosterone also were approximately four times as likely to have prevalent diabetes compared wth men in the third tertile (3.93 [1.39-11.13]). These associations persisted even after excluding men with clinically abnormal testosterone concentrations defined as total testosterone 〈 3.25 ng/ml or free testosterone 〈 0.07 ng/ml. No clear association was observed for total testosterone after multivariable adjustment (P for trend across tertiles = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS-Low free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations in the normal range were associated with diabetes, independent of adiposity. These data suggest that low androgen levels may be a risk factor for diabetes in men
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17259487
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; MECHANISM ; ASSOCIATION ; cholesterol ; SERUM ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; cross-sectional studies ; BINDING GLOBULIN ; prostatic neoplasms ; MIDDLE-AGED MEN ; FREE TESTOSTERONE ; occupational ; ADVANCED PROSTATE-CANCER ; DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL ; FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA ; Gonadal steroid hormones ; HIGH-DOSE SIMVASTATIN ; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductases ; MALE HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC PATIENTS ; TESTICULAR FUNCTION
    Abstract: Low cholesterol levels and statin drugs may protect against prostate cancer with a worse prognosis. Their protective mechanism is unknown, but has been hypothesized to be related to cholesterol's role as a sex steroid hormone precursor. We evaluated whether serum testosterone and estradiol differ by cholesterol or cholesterol-lowering drug use. Testosterone and estradiol were measured for 1,457 male participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We estimated multivariable-adjusted geometric mean hormone concentration by quintiles of cholesterol concentration and by cholesterol-lowering drugs use. Across quintiles of cholesterol, testosterone level did not differ (mean, 95% confidence interval (CI); Q1: 5.25, 5.02-5.49, Q5: 5.05, 4.76-5.37 ng/ml; p-trend = 0.32), whereas estradiol levels were lower (Q1: 38.7, 36.9-40.5; Q5: 33.1, 31.8-34.5 pg/ml; p-trend 〈 0.0001). Neither testosterone (no: 5.12, 4.94-5.30, yes: 4.91, 4.33-5.57 ng/ml, p = 0.57) nor estradiol (no: 35.9, 34.8-37.1; yes: 33.9, 29.4-39.2 pg/ml; p = 0.39) differed by cholesterol-lowering drugs use. Testosterone did not differ by cholesterol or cholesterol-lowering drug use. Estradiol was lower in men with higher cholesterol, but did not differ by cholesterol-lowering drug use. Our results suggest that the lower risk of advanced prostate cancer among statin users is not readily explained by a cholesterol-mediated effect of statins on sex hormone levels
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20512526
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Alcohol ; Body mass index ; Coronary heart disease ; German cardiovascular prevention study ; HDL cholesterol ; NHANES ; Non-HDL cholesterol ; Serum total cholesterol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mean serum total cholesterol levels appear to be higher in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) than in the United States (US) while coronary heart disease death rates are lower. The study examined possible factors for the difference including possible differences in laboratory methodology. Cross-sectional data from the first two waves of the German National Health Surveys (1984–1986 and 1987–1989; n = 9709) and from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1976–1980; n = 7832) were compared for men and women 25–69 years of age. The influence of age, body mass index, diet, cigarette smoking, education, income, use of oral contraceptives or antihypertensive agents, alcohol consumption and potential differences in laboratory measurement were explored using multiple regression techniques separately for men and women for ages 25–39, 40–59 and 60–69 years of age. Overall ages, unadjusted mean total cholesterol levels were higher in German than US men (6.02 vs. 5.64 mmol/l) and in German than US women (6.04 vs. 5.80 mmol/l) as were HDL cholesterol levels (men: 1.30 vs 1.14 mmol/l; women: 1.65 vs. 1.38 mmol/l). Adjusting for lifestyle factors explained, on the average, 40% of the differences in mean total cholesterol of which half or 20% was accounted for by adjusting for alcohol intake. Adjusting for possible laboratory differences explained, on the average, an additional 30% of the differences. Frequency of alcohol intake was the most important factor in explaining differences in mean HDL cholesterol levels. Adjustment for differences in alcohol intake had negligible effects on reducing the differences in mean non-HDL cholesterol.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-3297
    Keywords: twin studies ; environmental variation ; nutrition ; genetic variation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Psychology
    Notes: Abstract In the NHLI Twin Study MZ twins are shown to “get together” substantially more often than DZ twins. With this result as an indicator of differences in shared environment, the assumption of equal shared environmental variation for MZ and DZ twins is assessed using nutritional data calculated from a food frequency questionnaire. Six nutrients show significant genetic variance for the total sample. However, when stratified on the basis of how frequently twins see each other, none of the nutrients shows significant genetic variance for both strata. A similar pattern is seen for several individual items from the questionnaire. In addition, four of the nutrients show significant correlation between the absolute difference in the nutrient intake of MZ twin pairs and how often they “get together.” These data appear to show that unequal environmental effects may lead to falsely high estimates of genetic variance for nutrient intake.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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