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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Free leptin, bound leptin, resting energy expenditure, hyperthyroidism, weight reduction, leptin in CSF.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Aims/hypothesis. Leptin exerts important regulating effects on energy homeostasis and could have a central role in our understanding of obesity, diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome. Leptin circulates in a free and protein bound form. The aim of the present study was to test whether both fractions of the leptin system can be selectively regulated and thus serve independent physiological roles.¶Methods. Using specific radioimmunoassays we measured both leptin components in relation to BMI in healthy subjects before and after weight reduction and in hyperthyroid patients during correction of thyrotoxicosis. In the latter group body composition and resting energy expenditure was monitored. In addition, we measured serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of free and bound leptin in patients with neurological disorders.¶Results. Under all conditions free leptin concentrations reflected body fat mass. Bound leptin concentrations decreased during weight reduction but also after treatment of hyperthyroidism despite an increase in fat mass. Direct measurement of resting energy expenditure and bound leptin in hyperthyroid patients and under thyrostatic treatment showed a significant positive correlation of both variables. In contrast to free leptin whose transport into the cerebrospinal fluid appears to be saturated at low physiological concentrations of serum free leptin, bound leptin concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid increased in parallel to serum concentrations over the whole physiologically relevant range.¶Conclusion/interpretation. Our data indicate a distinct role of free and bound leptin in the feedback regulating energy intake and expenditure and could have important implications for our understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of leptin-dependent signalling. [Diabetologia (2000) 43: 438–442]
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Urinary albumin excretion, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, blood pressure, pregnancy, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, haemoglobin A1C, Type I diabetes.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Aims/hypothesis. To evaluate the value of 24-h blood pressure monitoring compared to office blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in predicting pre-eclampsia in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.¶Methods. The study included 136 consecutive pregnancies in Caucasian women with Type I diabetes before gestation without diabetic nephropathy, anamnestic hypertension or early abortion. Values of urinary albumin excretion and office blood pressure before pregnancy and the HbA1C value at the time of conception were obtained. Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin excretion of 30–300 mg/24 h in two out of three consecutive urine samples. Single measurements of 24-h urinary albumin excretion, office blood pressure and HbA1C were done five 5 times during pregnancy. In a subgroup of 74 women 24-h blood pressure measurements were done at 10 and 28 weeks of gestation. Pre-eclampsia was defined as office blood pressure higher than 140/90 mm Hg accompanied by proteinuria above 0.3 g/24 h later than 20 weeks of gestation.¶Results. Urinary albumin excretion and systolic blood pressure were higher before and throughout pregnancy in 14 women developing pre-eclampsia compared with women remaining normotensive (p 〈 0.001; p 〈 0.05, respectively). By logistic regression analysis the best predictor for pre-eclampsia was microalbuminuria before pregnancy (p 〈 0.05) with no additive predictive effect of 24-h blood pressure or office blood pressure measurement. The night:day ratio of blood pressure was similar in the two groups.¶Conclusion/interpretation. Microalbuminuria before pregnancy is the strongest predictor of pre-eclampsia in Type I diabetes. Measuring 24-h blood pressure early in pregnancy did not improve the ability to identify women at risk. [Diabetologia (2000) 43: 927–931]
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Cytokines are peptide hormones essential for cellular communication in the immune response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cytokines, especially recombinant interleukin 1β (rIL-1β), on human thyroid cells. Thyroglobulin (Tg) was measured by a double antibody radioimmunoassay, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) by a competitive protein binding assay. Supernatants from unstimulated and phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated blood nononuclear cells were added to human thyroid cells cultured in monolayers. A dose-dependent inhibition of the secretion of Tg and cAMP was demonstrated. Both subcultured and primary cultured cells incubated with rIL-1β at pharmacological levels (10−1−102 U/ml) exhibited an inhibition of Tg and cAMP secretion, while at physiological levels (10−5-10−3 U/ml), the secretion of Tg was enhanced. The similar stimulation of cAMP was demonstrated in subcultures. These in vitro studies suggest that IL-1β may play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Further, the stimulations at low concentrations indicate that IL-1β may regulate the function of the thyroid gland under physiological conditions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Natural killer (NK) cell activity and blood mononuclear cell subpopulations were characterized in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n= 11), Graves' disease (n= 20), non-toxic goitre (n= 10) and in normal controls (n= 22). NK cell activity against K 562 target cells and the capability of IFN-α, Il-2, and indomethacin to enhance NK cell activity in vitro did not differ significantly between the groups. The percentages of large granular lymphocytes, CD5 +, CD4 +, CD8 + and CD16 + cells were normal in patients with non-toxic goitre, Hashimoto's and Graves' diseases. There was no correlation between NK cell activities and TgAb, MAb and TSAb. Although NK cell activity is suppressed in several autoimmune diseases, NK cell function is normal in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Allergy 40 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To study the autoimmune manifestations in subacute thyroiditis (SAT), the patterns of thyroid antibodies, thyroglobulin and circulating immune complexes were investigated in 10 patients during the course of the disease. Eight patients were thyrotoxic at diagnosis, and became euthyroid during recovery with a median observation of 8 months (4–30 months). Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins were measured as TSH binding inhibiting immunoglobulins (TBII) and as thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSAb). TBII were present in all patients at least once during the observation period and remained detectable in six patients after recovery. TSAb were detected in three patients without relation to the hyperthyroid state. Thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) were present in four patients and persisted in three, while microsomal antibodies (MAb) were negative. Thyroglobulin (Tg) in the TgAb negative patients (n = 6) was high at diagnosis (median 229 μg/1, range 55–375) and fell rapidly during the course of SAT. Circulating immune complexes (CIC), which were found in all patients, reached maximal levels shortly after the onset of the disease and persisted after recovery. No correlation could be demonstrated between the different thyroid antibodies, and there was no clear relation between the levels of CIC and presence of the autoantibodies. However, the changes in CIC paralleled the changes in TBII, and it is suggested that immune complex formation is a major feature of the regulatory mechanisms controlling the immune responses in SAT.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 44 (1993), S. 323-334 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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