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  • 1
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Macrophages co-incubated with Candida albicans strain CR1 in vitro showed early signs of apoptosis, but evolved to necrosis after 2 h. In this study, we investigated whether strain CR1 caused apoptosis or necrosis of macrophages after its inoculation into mice peritoneal cavity, and whether this correlated with the secretion of IL-10. Peritoneal macrophages from mice that received an inoculum of C. albicans CR1 showed signs of apoptosis and necrosis from 30 min to 2 h afterwards, whereas heat-killed C. albicans did not cause those effects. IL-10 production was low during the first 6 h post-infection, when macrophages predominated in the peritoneal exudate, whereas its higher production after 24 h correlated with an increase of neutrophils in the exudate. Treatment of CR1 with pepstatin (an inhibitor of proteinases) prevented the process of apoptosis and significantly reduced IL-10 production, suggesting that the increased production of IL-10 was caused by processes occurring during the initial phase of infection, such as apoptosis, necrosis and uptake of death cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In this study we tested the hypothesis that after administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of concanavalin A (Con-A) to mice, the proportion of neutrophils and macrophages in the peritoneal exudate and their phagocytic and candidacidal activities should change with time. The number of neutrophils in the peritoneal exudate was greatly increased 6 h after administration of Con-A, and those cells were able to kill both intracellular and extracellular yeast and germ tube forms of Candida albicans. Addition of catalase to the culture medium reduced the killing of C. albicans, suggesting that the candidacidal activity depended on the myeloperoxidase system. The survival of mice pretreated with Con-A and submitted to an inoculum of C. albicans 6 h afterwards was twice higher than that of controls, which suggests that neutrophils were able to clear the experimental infection. One day after the treatment, the population of neutrophils in the exudate was about 45%, but after 2 days it was reduced to only 5% and the candidacidal activity was also reduced. After 4 days the exudate contained over 95% of macrophages, the candidacidal activity reached a maximum, and the phagocytosis mediated by both complement receptors and mannose receptors was increased. Uptake of FITC–mannose–BSA by macrophages was maximal on about the 4th day and was inhibited by mannan, suggesting that treatment with Con-A increased the activity of mannose receptors. These results support the hypothesis that activation of cellular immunity by Con-A occurred in two phases, one dominated by neutrophils, and the other by macrophages expressing increased activity of mannose receptors.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The effect of variation of pH and temperature on the lectinophagocytosis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages elicited by thioglycolate medium was evaluated. The phagocytosis of enteropathogenic E. coli is dependent on pH, being maximal at pH 7.0 and reduced at pH 5.5 or 6.0. Mannan and mannose (as representative sugars that bind to phagocyte lectin receptors), are recognized by mannose receptors and reduced the phagocytic index at pH 7.0 (from 41.6±8.5 to 17.0±6.1) and at pH 6.0 (from 24.1±5.1 to 14.5±5.0), suggesting that mannose receptors, despite their reduced affinity for ligand at pH 6.0, also participate in phagocytosis of enteropathogenic E. coli. The inhibition of phagocytosis by anti-substance A antibody was also examined at pH 7.0 and at pH 6.0, decreasing (from 41.6±8.5 to 21.1±3.4) and (from 24.1±5.1 to 12.0±3.5), respectively. This antibody reduced the phagocytosis of enteropathogenic E. coli in phagocytic assays at 37 or 41°C. These results suggest that the acidic pH decreased the affinity of mannose receptors to ligands on the surface of E. coli and also affected the binding of lectin from E. coli to N-acetylgalactosamine on phagocytes.
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