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  • 1
    Keywords: WOMEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; insulin ; caffeine ; glycemic index ; COFFEE CONSUMPTION ; LOAD
    Abstract: Data on the role of dietary factors in endometrial cancer development are limited and inconsistent. We applied a "nutrient-wide association study" approach to systematically evaluate dietary risk associations for endometrial cancer while controlling for multiple hypothesis tests using the false discovery rate (FDR) and validating the results in an independent cohort. We evaluated endometrial cancer risk associations for dietary intake of 84 foods and nutrients based on dietary questionnaires in three prospective studies, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; N = 1,303 cases) followed by validation of nine foods/nutrients (FDR 〈= 0.10) in the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII; N = 1,531 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In multivariate adjusted comparisons of the extreme categories of intake at baseline, coffee was inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk (EPIC, median intake 750 g/day vs. 8.6; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97, P-trend = 0.09; NHS/NHSII, median intake 1067 g/day vs. none; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96, P-trend = 0.04). Eight other dietary factors that were associated with endometrial cancer risk in the EPIC study (total fat, monounsaturated fat, carbohydrates, phosphorus, butter, yogurt, cheese, and potatoes) were not confirmed in the NHS/NHSII. Our findings suggest that coffee intake may be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further data are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the mechanisms linking coffee intake to endometrial cancer risk to develop improved prevention strategies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25662427
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  • 2
    Abstract: Importance: Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning. Objective: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Evidence Review: Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data. Cancer incidence was calculated by dividing mortality estimates through the modeled MI ratios. To calculate cancer prevalence, MI ratios were used to model survival. To calculate YLDs, prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights. The YLLs were estimated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the reference life expectancy. DALYs were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Countries were categorized by SDI quintiles to summarize results. Findings: In 2015, there were 17.5 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.7 million deaths. Between 2005 and 2015, cancer cases increased by 33%, with population aging contributing 16%, population growth 13%, and changes in age-specific rates contributing 4%. For men, the most common cancer globally was prostate cancer (1.6 million cases). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs in men (1.2 million deaths and 25.9 million DALYs). For women, the most common cancer was breast cancer (2.4 million cases). Breast cancer was also the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs for women (523000 deaths and 15.1 million DALYs). Overall, cancer caused 208.3 million DALYs worldwide in 2015 for both sexes combined. Between 2005 and 2015, age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 174 of 195 countries or territories. Age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) for all cancers combined decreased within that timeframe in 140 of 195 countries or territories. Countries with an increase in the ASDR due to all cancers were largely located on the African continent. Of all cancers, deaths between 2005 and 2015 decreased significantly for Hodgkin lymphoma (-6.1% [95% uncertainty interval (UI), -10.6% to -1.3%]). The number of deaths also decreased for esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia, although these results were not statistically significant. Conclusion and Relevance: As part of the epidemiological transition, cancer incidence is expected to increase in the future, further straining limited health care resources. Appropriate allocation of resources for cancer prevention, early diagnosis, and curative and palliative care requires detailed knowledge of the local burden of cancer. The GBD 2015 study results demonstrate that progress is possible in the war against cancer. However, the major findings also highlight an unmet need for cancer prevention efforts, including tobacco control, vaccination, and the promotion of physical activity and a healthy diet.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27918777
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0888-7543
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Infant feeding ; Taurine ; Fat and energy absorption ; Bile acid excretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An adapted cow's milk infant formula without or with extra taurine (350 μmol/l) was fed to four and five infants, respectively. The infants, born after 28–32 weeks gestation, and initially fed with a starting formula for preterms, were switched to one of the two above-mentioned formulae at approximately the 16th day of life. Each infant was studied during 4 consecutive weeks. The faecal excretion of fat, energy and total bile acids was determined from 3-day stool collections each week. The addition of taurine to the infant formula neither improved the uptake of fat and energy nor changed the faecal bile acid excretion. Growth velocity was similar in both groups of infants. Based on these results there is no rationale for adding taurine to adapted cow's milk infant formula to obtain a better fat absorption.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Liver glycogenosis ; Phosphorylase kinase ; Phosphorylase ; Longitudinal study
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report a longitudinal study of 41 patients with liver glycogenosis due to phosphorylase kinase deficiency. In their youth, patients displayed hepatomegaly (92%), growth retardation (68%), delayed motor development (52%), hypercholesterolaemia (76%), hypertriglyceridaemia (70%), elevation of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (56%) and fasting hyperketosis (44%). With age, these clinical and biochemical abnormalities gradually disappeared and most adult patients were asymptomatic.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Calcium carbonate ; Lipoproteins ; Familial hypercholesterolemia ; Apolipoprotein A-I ; Apolipoprotein B
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of oral calcium carbonate on serum lipoprotein concentrations was tested in 50 children with familial hypercholesterolemia (type II-A) consuming a low cholesterol high polyunsaturated fat diet, using a cross-over design versus a placebo. Cholesterol was measured in serum and in the individual lipoprotein density classes. Serum apolipoprotein B (the protein moiety of low density lipoprotein) and apolipoprotein A-I (the main protein of high density lipoprotein) were measured by specific immunoassays. Calcium carbonate treatment induced only a slight increase in serum apolipoprotein A-I (+4%) and a slight decrease in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (-4%), both changes being significant at the P=0.05 level.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Glycogen storage disease ; Glucose-6-phosphatase ; Glucose-6-phosphate translocase ; Debranching enzyme ; Phosphorylase-6-kinase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A workshop was held on “Aspects of treatment of patients with glycogen storage disease” within the framework of the Concerted Action “Inborn errors of metabolism” of the European Communities. Consensus was reached on the main issues of treatment of patients with deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate translocase, debranching enzyme, liver phosphorylase and phosphorylase-b-kinase. The resulting recommendations are reported.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Hereditary glucose-galactose malabsorption ; Hydrogen breath test ; 14C-glucose transport in jejunal mucosa
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A simple test is described for the diagnosis of monosaccharide malabsorption in infancy caused by a congenital defect of glucose and galactose transport. Increased hydrogen (H2) excretion in expired air after ingestion of sugar was used to diagnose this condition in an infant with severe diarrhoea after breast feeding. Abnormal amounts of H2 were excreted after oral administration of glucose and galactose, but not after fructose. A carbohydrate free diet supplemented with fructose resulted in rapid weight gain and disappearance of diarrhoea. The diagnosis of glucosegalactose malabsorption was confirmed by 14C-glucose transport studies on a jejunal mucosal biopsy specimen. These findings indicate that interval breath H2 estimation in mixed expired air is a non-invasive, reliable procedure for detection of monosaccharide malabsorption in infancy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of pediatrics 154 (1995), S. 423-424 
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé. L’étude porte sur 71 hanches de 69 malades porteurs d’arthrite pyogenique du nouveau né et de l’enfant. 20 hanches à caractéristiques radiographiques de nécrose vasculaire ont été sélectionnées. Les altérations mises en évidence ont été classés en 3 groupes: le Groupe I (jusqu’à 6 mois) se référant aux alterations caracterisées par un retard ou une absence du noyau épiphysaire; le Groupe II (entre 7 mois et 5 ans) se caracterisant par la disparition de ce noyau, suivit ou non de revascularisation; dans les 2 groupes le modèle cartilagineux de la tête du fémur est preservé. Le Groupe III (6 à 16 ans) met en évidence une augmentation de la densité de l’épiphyse fémorale, totale ou partielle et suivie – ou non de colapse. Après un follow-up minimum de 2 ans et maximum de 15 ans, on observe une tendance à des déformations plus sévéres aux 11 hanches résultant de la somme des Groupes I et II. L’inverse se passe par rapport aux déformités moins importantes. Comme dans les cas d’arthrites pyogènes, l’augmentation de la pression hydrostatique intra-articulaire ou la thrombose séptique des vaisseaux épiphysaires peuvent produire des nécroses avasculaires, il est donc imperatif que le diagnostique et le traitement soient précoces.
    Notes: Summary. Seventy-one hip joints in 69 infants and children with pyogenic arthritis were studied. Twenty joints (28%) with the radiographic characteristics of avascular necrosis were identified and the changes classified into 3 groups: Group 1 (infants up to the age of 6 months) had ischaemic changes characterized by the absence or delayed appearance of the epiphyseal ossification centre; Group 2 (children aged between 7 months and 5 years) showed disappearance of this centre whether followed by revascularization or not, with the shape of the cartilaginous femoral head preserved in either case; and in Group 3 (children 6 – 16 years of age) the femoral epiphysis was either totally or partially involved with increased bone density; collapse of the head may or may not have occurred. At follow-up for between 2 and 15 years, a trend towards more severe deformities was seen in the 11 hip joints of Group 3 when compared to the 9 hip joints in Groups 1 and 2. The opposite was observed in relation to less severe deformities. Early diagnosis and treatment of infection is mandatory in patients with pyogenic arthritis and increased intra-articular hydrostatic pressure, or those with septic thrombosis of the epiphyseal vessels, which could cause avascular necrosis (AVN).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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