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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Genetic variation in the C1R subcomponent of the first complement component C1 was investigated in U.S. whites by isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting. In addition to the previously described two alleles, the products of a new and rare third allele designated C1R *3 were detected. The expression of the new allele is consistent with autosomal codominant inheritance, which is confirmed by family data. The frequencies of the C1R *1, C1R *2 and C1R *3 alleles in 201 randomly selected U.S. whites are: 0.908, 0.090, and 0.002, respectively.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Apolipoprotein H (APO H) has recently been identified as a structural component of chylomicrons, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Although the precise metabolic function of APO H in lipid metabolism is not certain, it has been suggested that APO H may be involved in triglyceride (TG) metabolism. In addition to the previously described quantitative polymorphism, we have recently detected a common qualitative polymorphism at the APO H structural locus. To test the role of APO H genetic variation in determining lipoprotein and lipid levels, we have estimated the allelic effects of APO H variation on TG, VLDL, LDL, HDL, HDL3, and total cholesterol on 356 Nigerian blacks(189 males, 167 females). While no significant effect of phenotype was observed on lipoprotein levels, the effect of interaction between phenotype and gender was significant. Therefore, data on males and females were analyzed separately using analysis of variance after adjusting for age and body mass index. Logarithmic transformation of pertinent variables was done to bring the distribution of the variables closer to normality. A statistically significant effect of phenotype was observed on triglyceride levels in females only (P〈0.05). Further analysis of this phenotypic effect revealed that it is due to the impact of the APO H * 3 allele, which raises triglycerides by 9.92 mg/dl as compared to the common allele, APO H * 2. These findings are in accordance with the postulated role of APO H in triglyceride metabolism. On the basis of its sex-specific effect, we propose a hypothesis that may explain the combined influence of the quantitative and qualitative polymorphisms at the APO H locus on triglyceride levels in females.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Since the discovery in 1977 that the GC1 gene could be resolved into two common subcomponents on an isoelectric focusing (IEF) gel, a large number of ethnic groups have been screened to analyze the extent of genetic variation in human populations. Using the IEF technique, approximately 50,000 individuals from 160 different populations have been tested for the GC polymorphism. A marked variation in common GC suballele frequencies in different geographic areas seems to correlate with skin pigmentation and intensity of sun light. Pigmented (black) and keratinized (yellowish) skin type populations have a relatively high frequency of the GC *IF allele as compared to white skin populations. By comparison non-pigmented and non-keratinized white skin populations are generally characterized by having the maximum values of the GC *IS allele. The anthropologic significance of the GC locus has been enhanced further by detecting additional unique GC variants which provide useful information about evolutionary links between different populations. However, the presence of some electrophoretically identical unique variants in genetically and geographically distinct populations demand further investigation of these allelic variants to shed more light on their origins.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human genetics 〈Berlin〉 84 (1989), S. 102-102 
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:Broadband ultrasound attenuation – Quantitative ultrasound – Speed of sound
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment of bone is a strong predictor of hip fractures and is currently an FDA-approved tool to identify women at risk of osteoporosis. However, few studies have investigated the lifestyle and genetic correlates of QUS in women. This study investigated the cross-sectional associates of several lifestyle, demographic and genetic factors with calcaneal QUS parameters (broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS)) in 393 women aged 45–53 years. Leisure-time and historical physical activity, dietary calcium and protein, body composition, vitamin D receptor genotypes, menopause status, other health behaviors, calcaneal QUS parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed at a single clinic visit. Lean mass, recent physical activity and African-American race were the strongest correlates of SOS whereas dietary protein, calcium and recent physical activity were the strongest correlates of BUA. These predictors explained 13% and 6% of the variance in SOS and BUA, respectively. Smoking, alcohol intake, education, hormone replacement therapy, calcium and vitamin D supplements, historical physical activity and vitamin D receptor genotypes were not significantly associated with BUA or SOS. Lean body mass and premenopausal status were the strongest correlates of lumbar BMD whereas lean body mass, physical activity, African-American race and body mass index were significantly related to femoral neck BMD. Physical activity remained predictive of SOS after controlling for lumbar BMD. The spectrum and magnitude of risk factors for SOS and BUA, including lean body mass, physical activity, race, protein and calcium intake, parallel previously observed predictors of BMD.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus ; association ; Rhesus blood group ; haptoglobin ; group specific component
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, a disease of complex aetiology, has been reported to be nonrandomly associated with several polymorphic markers in human populations. These data, plus evidence of a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in American Indians and mixed populations, such as Mexican-Americans, which is only partially attributable to the prevalence of obesity in these populations, makes it imperative that the nature of such associations be clarified in relation to genetic susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present paper reports the results of tests of association between Type 2 diabetes mellitus and seven polymorphic markers: the blood groups — ABO, Rhesus, Duffy and Kell (K and KP) — haptoglobin and group specific component; among Anglo and Hispanic populations in the San Luis Valley of Colorado, USA. The sample population consisted of 788 individuals of which 398 were Anglo subjects (97 Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 301 normal individuals) and 390 Hispanic subjects (191 Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 199 normal individuals). Association between Type 2 diabetes mellitus and genetic markers in patients was tested using the G2 statistic within each ethnic class using normal frequencies as a comparison. Results of the tests indicated that only the Kell blood group was significantly associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus at a 5% level among the Anglo subjects (G2=5.16, 1df). This significant value can be explained by chance alone, if multiple comparisons are taken into account. Our tests have not shown the previously reported haptoglobin or Rhesus blood group associations seen in Mexican-Americans in San Antonio, Texas.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Genetics — Osteoporosis — Quantitative ultrasound — Alpha-2-HS glycoprotein — Polymorphism.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) is an independent predictor of hip and vertebral fractures. BUA is under genetic control, but the specific genes contributing to BUA are not well defined. We examined the relationship between genetic variation in α2HS-glycoprotein (AHSG), an abundant noncollagenous protein of bone matrix, and calcaneal BUA. Genetic polymorphism in AHSG was determined in 222 Caucasian women (age 66–92) enrolled in the Pittsburgh Study of Osteoporotic Fractures clinical center by isoelectric focusing of serum samples. Calcaneal BUA and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured on the same foot with a Walker Sonix UBA 575+ and single X-ray absorptiometry. Hip and spine BMD were determined with a Hologic QDR-1000 densitometer using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. AHSG polymorphism was not significantly related to hip, lumbar spine, or calcaneal BMD. Compared with the homozygous AHSG*2 women, calcaneal BUA was 13% lower in heterozygous (P 〈 0.05) and 16% lower in homozygous AHSG*1 women (P 〈 0.05). This relationship persisted after controlling for age, weight, height, walks for exercise, and calcaneal BMD. Current and self-reported height were also lowest in homozygous AHSG*1 women, intermediate in heterozygous women, and highest among homozygous AHSG*2 subjects. These results suggest that the AHSG polymorphism may contribute to the genetic influence on calcaneal BUA and stature.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Bone quality ; Broadband ultrasound attenuation ; Epidemiology ; Osteoporosis ; Quantitative ultrasound ; Speed of sound
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure of bone which has been used in research settings for the prediction of osteoporosis. This review summarizes the current status of the epidemiology of QUS analysis, including its relationship with bone mineral density (BMD), risk of osteoporotic fracture and risk factors for osteoporosis. Although only moderately correlated with BMD, QUS appears to be as strong a predictor of osteoporotic fracture as BMD and may predict fracture independent of BMD. Risk factors for low QUS, including age, menopause, body composition and physical inactivity, seem to parallel those of low BMD. More longitudinal research is needed to confirm the clinical utility of QUS and more experimental and population-based studies are needed to determine whether the etiology of low QUS values is different from that of low bone mass.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:African-Americans – Bone mineral density – Genetics – Osteoporosis – Vitamin D receptor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: A polymorphism at the first of two potential translation initiation codons in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene defined by the FokI restriction endonuclease has been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) among Caucasian, Asian, and Mexican-American women. We tested the hypothesis that the FokI polymorphism is related to markers of osteoporotic risk in 104 community-dwelling African-American women aged 65 years and older. Six percent of the African-American women had the ff genotype, 32% were heterozygous, and 63% had the FF genotype. FokI genotype frequencies did not differ from Hardy–Weinberg expectations. Hip and calcaneal BMD, calcaneal ultrasound attenuation and hip geometry from pelvic radiographs did not differ significantly by FokI genotypes or between women with and without the rare FokI allele. There was also no association between the FokI polymorphism and biochemical markers of bone turnover or fractional calcium absorption. We conclude that the VDR start codon polymorphism does not have a major influence on osteoporotic risk in older African-American women.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA ; ancient DNA ; Native Americans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Examination of ancient and contemporary Native American mtDNA variation via diagnostic restriction sites and the 9-pb Region V deletion suggests a single wave of migration into the New World. This is in contrast to data from Torroni et al.34 which suggested two waves of migration into the New World (the NaDene and Amerind). All four founding lineage types are present in populations in North, Central, and South America suggesting that all four lineages came over together and spead throughout the New World. Ancient Native American DNA shows that all four lineages were present before European contact in North America, and at least two were present in South America. The presence of all four lineages in the NaDene and the Amerinds argues against separate migrations founding these two groups, although admixture between the groups is still a viable explanation for the presence of all four types in the NaDene.
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