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  • 1
    Keywords: Oncology ; Immunology ; Medicine ; Cancer Research ; Immunology ; Molecular Medicine ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Cancer Stem Cells: from birth to death -- A Cancer Stem Cell Perspective on Minimal Residual Disease in Solid Malignancies -- Cancer Stem Cells in Lung Cancer: Roots of Drug Resistance and Targets for Novel Therapeutic Strategies -- Overexpression of YY1 Regulates the Resistance of Cancer Stem Cells: Targeting YY1 -- Cancer Stem Cell Challenges in Melanoma Characterization and Treatment -- Harnessing the immune system to target cancer cells -- Targeting leukemia stem cells and the immunological bone marrow microenvironment -- Crosstalk Between Prostate Cancer Stem Cells and Immune Cells: Implications for Tumor Progression and Resistance to Immunotherapy -- Cancer stem cells: the players of immune evasion from immunotherapy -- Index
    Abstract: This book represents an updated summary of the state of the art of the characterization of cancer stem cell/cancer initiating cell (CSC/CIC) properties. Experts provide an overview of the definition and biological properties of CSCs/CICs as well as the role of these cells in determining the resistance to standard and immune-based therapies. It also discusses limitations in the achievement of a definitive biological characterization of CSCs/CICs due to their high extent of plasticity and heterogeneity that is also mutually driven by the interaction of these cells with the tumor microenvironment. The limitations in targeting CSCs/CICs with immunotherapy are also explained together with explorative combination approaches that could increase the susceptibility of these cells to the recognition by immune cells. This book is conceived for a broad audience, including students, teachers, scientific experts. The critical revision of available results in terms of immunological profile of CSCs/CICs and the efficacy in targeting these cells by immunological approaches, results in a comprehensive and up to date recapitulation of the field and provides interesting suggestions on how to focus future investigations in order to assess the role of CSCs/CICs as prognostic and predictive biomarkers of responsiveness to therapies for cancer patients
    Pages: XIX, 256 p. 21 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783030166243
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract H-2 alloantisera and antimouse lymphocyte xenoantisera react with 14%–100% of human lymphocytes from a panel of at least 80 unrelated people. Population and family studies did not reveal HL-A specificity of such lymphocytotoxic antibodies but indicated that the antibodies are directed against polymorphic antigenic determinants inherited in association with HL-A antigens. H-2 allo- and xenoantisera absorbed with human lymphoid cells and a panel of platelets bearing all the known HL-A specificities were still cytolytic when tested against murine lymphocytes, suggesting that only a small proportion of the heterogeneous population of H-2 antibodies react with human lymphocytes. On the other hand, HL-A alloantisera could be absorbed by lymphocytes from certain murine strains. These results suggest that the crossreactivity between human and murine lymphocytes is caused by antigens common to several HL-A (or H-2) types or by antigens linked to HL-A but not identical with them.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The structural relationship of histocompatibility antigens W4 and W6 with other surface markers on cultured human lymphoid cells of the B type has been investigated, utilizing the lysostrip technique. W4 and W6 antigens were found to be structurally associated with antigens coded for by theB locus of theHLA region, but independent of receptors for breakdown products of the third complement component and xenogeneic red blood cells, and of antigenic moieties reacting with antibodies present in H-2 alloantisera.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The distribution of antigenic determinants recognized by the anti-Ia-like antigen monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) Q2/70, Q5/6 and Q5/13 on molecules coded for by theDR locus and by non-DR loci was investigated using a binding assay with125I-labeled Ia-like antigens isolated from four B lymphoid cell lines. The determinants reacting with the MoAb Q2/70 and Q5/13 are expressed on all DR alloantigens tested and on BR4X7 specificities, while those reacting with the MoAb Q5/6 are not detectable on DRw7 and BR4X7 molecules. None of the monoclonal antibodies reacted with DC1 molecules. The MoAb Q5/6 and Q5/13 reacted with the isolatedβ subunit of the Ia-like antigenic complex, while the MoAb Q2/70 did not react with the isolated chains.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Serologic and immunochemical assays have shown that the monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CR11-351 recognizes a determinant expressed by HLA-A2 and A28 alloantigens. The MoAb CR1 1-351 blocks the cytotoxicity of some, but not all, anti-HLA-A2 and anti-HLA-A28 alloantisera tested. These findings suggest that each allospecificity consists of several determinants, only some of which are spatially close to the determinant defined by the MoAb CR11-351. The binding of the MoAb CR11-351 to HLA-A2 lymphoid cells is not effected by their precoating with the HLA-A, B-specific MoAb CR10-214, Q6/64, and 6/31 but is enhanced by at least 20% by the MoAb CR10-131, CR10-402 and by the β 2-m-specific MoAb NAMB-1. The MoAb CR11-351 did not react with one of four HLA-A2 variants which are indistinguishable with conventional anti-HLA-A2 sera, but are not recognized by “normal” HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T cells and possess structurally distinct HLA-A2 heavy chains. Therefore the MoAb CR11-351 provides the first evidence of a serologically detectable difference between the four HLA-A2 variants and “normal” HLA-A2 antigens.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The anti-H-2 alloantiserum D-32 [(BlO.A(2R) × C3H.SW) anti-C3H] is cytolytic to human lymphocytes. Fab2 blocking assays, indirect immunoprecipitation and sequential immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the anti-H-2 alloantiserum D-32 recognizes antigenic determinants which are expressed on the heavy chain of subpopulations of HLA-A, B antigens. These determinants are different from those defining the serological polymorphism of the HLA-A, B, C system, are the same as or spatially close to those recognized by the anti-HLA-A, B monoclonal antibody Q6/64 and are expressed on rabbit, rat or guinea pig lymphocytes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Serological and immunochemical assays have shown that the monoclonal antibody Q1/28 recognizes an antigenic determinant which is expressed on the heavy chain of subsets of HLA-A, B antigens and is distinct from those defining the serological polymorphism of this system. Association of the HLA-A, B heavy chain with β2-microglobulin is not required for expression of the antigenic determinant recognized by the monoclonal antibody Q1/28, since this antibody can immunoprecipitate a 45 000 m. w. component from radiolabeled lymphoid-cell glycoproteins immunodepleted with either an anti-human β2-microglobulin xenoantiserum or the MoAb W6/32 to framework determinants of HLA-A, B, C antigens. Furthermore, the MoAb Q1/28 can immunoprecipitate a 45 000 m. w. component from an NP40lysate of radiolabeled Daudi cells, which lack the genetic information for β2-microglobulin. The determinant recognized by the MoAb Q1/28 is relatively resistant to denaturing treatments and does not appear to be carbohydrate in nature. The MoAb Q1/28 is the first example of an antibody which recognizes an antigenic determinant expressed on both the β2-microglobulin-associated and free HLA-A, B heavy chains.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Surfaces of cultured human lymphoid cells RPMI 1788, RPMI 4098, RPMI 8866, Raji, and WI-L2 were found to contain bothβ 2-microglobulin (β 2-μ) and HL-A determinants when tested by direct complement-dependent cytotoxicity andquantitative absorption with different cytotoxic antiβ 2-μ antisera and specific HL-A alloantisera. The same antigenic specificities were found in 3M KCl extracts of these cultured cells with a sensitiveβ 2-μ radioimmunoassay and an HL-A antigen blocking assay. Daudi cells provided a contrast, since noβ 2-μ or HL-A determinants were found on their surfaces or in 3 M KCl extracts prepared from them. Results from specific antibody blocking tests suggest a close association betweenβ 2-μ and HL-A determinants on plasma membranes of cultured human lymphoid cells. A solid state immunoadsorbent containing antiβ 2-μ antibodies effectively removed all detectable HL-A antigenic activity from some 3M KCl extracts of cultured human lymphoid cells as well as from some sera. Adsorption of HL-A antigens to these immunoadsorbents was specific since it was blocked only by prior addition ofβ 2-μ. Once on the antiβ 2-μ immunoadsorbents, HL-A antigens still reacted specifically with HL-A alloantibodies in quantitative absorption experiments. HL-A antigens andβ 2-μ could be eluted from antiβ 2-μ immunoadsorbents with a variety of chaotropic reagents and detergents, but thus far potassium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) appear to be the most effective. SDS-PAGE of these eluates indicated that HL-A antigens were considerably purified by adsorption to antiβ 2-μ immunoadsorbents and that two major molecular size fragments were distinguishable, i.e., ∼33,000 for HL-A and ∼ 12,000 forβ 2-μ.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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