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  • 1
    Keywords: GROWTH ; proliferation ; TISSUE ; ACID ; SPECTROMETRY ; MAMMALIAN-CELLS ; aerobic glycolysis ; 2-hydroxyglutarate ; METABOLIC TRANSFORMATION ; GLUTAMINASE
    Abstract: Exogenous glutamine is an important source of energy and molecular building blocks for many tumors. There is a renewed interest in therapeutically targeting glutamine metabolism due to the recent discovery of two novel glutaminase inhibitors. To quantify the dysregulation of the glutamate-glutamine equilibrium in breast cancer, metabolomics analysis of 270 clinical breast cancer and 97 normal breast samples was carried out using gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Positive correlation between glutamate and glutamine in normal breast tissues switched to negative correlation between glutamate and glutamine in breast cancer tissues. Compared with the ratio of glutamate to glutamine in normal tissues, we found 56% of the ER+ tumor tissues and 88% of the ER- tumor tissues glutamate-enriched. The glutamate-to-glutamine ratio (GGR) significantly correlated with ER status (p = 8.0E-09) and with tumor grade (p = 3.3E-05). Higher levels of GGR were associated with prolonged overall survival in univariate analysis (HR = 0.77, p = 0.027) and in multivariate analysis (HR = 0.73, p = 0.038). GGR levels were reflected in an unsupervised clustering of metabolomics profiles. In a supervised analysis of metabolomics data and of genome-wide expression data, replacement of GGR by metabolite surrogate markers was feasible, while replacement of GGR by RNA markers had a limited accuracy. Functional analysis of the gene expression data showed negative correlation between glutamate enrichment and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pathway. Our findings may have important implications for patient stratification related to utilization of glutaminase inhibitors.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25155347
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  • 2
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; microarray ; ASSOCIATION ; DISCOVERY ; ACID ; OBESITY ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; EXTRACTION ; ETHER
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Metabolic and transcriptomic differences between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments, particularly in the context of obesity, may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated the differential functions of their metabolic compositions. OBJECTIVES: Biochemical differences between adipose tissues (VAT compared with SAT) in patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) were investigated by using mass spectrometry metabolomics and gene expression profiling. Metabolite compositions were compared between VAT, SAT, and serum metabolites. The relation between patients' tumor stage and metabolic profiles was assessed. DESIGN: Presurgery blood and paired VAT and SAT samples during tumor surgery were obtained from 59 CRC patients (tumor stages I-IV) of the ColoCare cohort. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to measure 1065 metabolites in adipose tissue (333 identified compounds) and 1810 metabolites in serum (467 identified compounds). Adipose tissue gene expression was measured by using Illumina's HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChips. RESULTS: Compared with SAT, VAT displayed elevated markers of inflammatory lipid metabolism, free arachidonic acid, phospholipases (PLA2G10), and prostaglandin synthesis-related enzymes (PTGD/PTGS2S). Plasmalogen concentrations were lower in VAT than in SAT, which was supported by lower gene expression of FAR1, the rate-limiting enzyme for ether-lipid synthesis in VAT. Serum sphingomyelin concentrations were inversely correlated (P = 0.0001) with SAT adipose triglycerides. Logistic regression identified lipids in patients' adipose tissues, which were associated with CRC tumor stage. CONCLUSIONS: As one of the first studies, we comprehensively assessed differences in metabolic, lipidomic, and transcriptomic profiles between paired human VAT and SAT and their association with CRC tumor stage. We identified markers of inflammation in VAT, which supports prior evidence regarding the role of visceral adiposity and cancer. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02328677.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26156741
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  • 3
    Keywords: INFORMATION ; NEW-YORK ; GENOME ; MICROARRAY DATA ; SPECIFICATION ; PROJECT ; GUIDELINES ; ANNOTATION ; STANDARDS ; USA ; microbiology ; ENGLAND ; biotechnology ; SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18688244
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  • 4
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; PROTEIN ; TUMORS ; URINE ; XANTHINE DEHYDROGENASE ; SUBTYPES ; OVARIAN ; CELL METABOLISM
    Abstract: Molecular subtyping of breast cancer is necessary for therapy selection and mandatory for all breast cancer patients. Metabolic alterations are considered a hallmark of cancer and several metabolic drugs are currently being investigated in clinical trials. However, the dependence of metabolic alterations on breast cancer subtypes has not been investigated on -omics scale. Thus, 204 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and 67 estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer tissues were investigated using GC-TOFMS based metabolomics. 19 metabolites were detected as altered in a predefined training set (2/3 of tumors) and could be validated in a predefined validation set (1/3 of tumors). The metabolite changes included increases in beta-alanine, 2-hydroyglutarate, glutamate, xanthine and decreases in glutamine in the ER- subtype. Beta-alanine demonstrated the strongest change between ER- and ER+ breast cancer (fold change=2.4, p=1.5E-20). In a correlation analysis with genome-wide expression data in a subcohort of 154 tumors, we found a strong negative correlation (Spearman R=-0.62) between beta-alanine and 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT). Immunohistological analysis confirmed down-regulation of the ABAT protein in ER- breast cancer. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis of a large external expression data set, the ABAT transcript was demonstrated to be a positive prognostic marker for breast cancer (HR=0.6, p=3.2E-15). BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: It is well-known for more than a decade that breast cancer exhibits distinct gene expression patterns depending on the molecular subtype defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 status. Here, we show that breast cancer exhibits distinct metabolomics patterns depending on ER status. Our observation supports the current view of ER+ breast cancer and ER- breast as different diseases requiring different treatment strategies. Metabolic drugs for cancer including glutaminase inhibitors are currently under development and tested in clinical trials. We found glutamate enriched and glutamine reduced in ER- breast cancer compared to ER+ breast cancer and compared to normal breast tissues. Thus, metabolomics analysis highlights the ER- subtype as a preferential target for glutaminase inhibitors. For the first time, we report on a regulation of beta-alanine catabolism in cancer. In breast cancer, ABAT transcript expression was variable and correlated with ER status. Low ABAT transcript expression was associated with low ABAT protein expression and high beta-alanine concentration. In a large external microarray cohort, low ABAT expression shortened recurrence-free survival in breast cancer, ER+ breast cancer and ER- breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24125731
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Analytica Chimica Acta 295 (1994), S. 297-305 
    ISSN: 0003-2670
    Keywords: Benzothiazoles ; Extraction ; Liquid chromatography ; Wastewater ; Water
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-07-28
    Description: BACKGROUND: The metabolome of any given biological system contains a diverse range of low molecular weight molecules (metabolites), whose abundances can be affected by the timing and method of sample collection, storage, and handling. Thus, it is necessary to consider the requirements for preanalytical processes and biobanking in metabolomics research. Poor practice can create bias and have deleterious effects on the robustness and reproducibility of acquired data. CONTENT: This review presents both current practice and latest evidence on preanalytical processes and biobanking of samples intended for metabolomics measurement of common biofluids and tissues. It highlights areas requiring more validation and research and provides some evidence-based guidelines on best practices. SUMMARY: Although many researchers and biobanking personnel are familiar with the necessity of standardizing sample collection procedures at the axiomatic level (e.g., fasting status, time of day, "time to freezer," sample volume), other less obvious factors can also negatively affect the validity of a study, such as vial size, material and batch, centrifuge speeds, storage temperature, time and conditions, and even environmental changes in the collection room. Any biobank or research study should establish and follow a well-defined and validated protocol for the collection of samples for metabolomics research. This protocol should be fully documented in any resulting study and should involve all stakeholders in its design. The use of samples that have been collected using standardized and validated protocols is a prerequisite to enable robust biological interpretation unhindered by unnecessary preanalytical factors that may complicate data analysis and interpretation.
    Keywords: Other Areas of Clinical Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0009-9147
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-8561
    Topics: Medicine
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