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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMMON ; DISEASE ; RISK ; RISKS ; GENE ; GENES ; primary ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; STAGE ; PATTERNS ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; SNP ; DATABASE ; Jun ; POPULATIONS ; familial risk ; BRCA2 MUTATIONS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE ; SINGLE ; AGGREGATION ; VARIANT ; ALLELE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; ALLELES ; LEVEL ; familial aggregation ; single-nucleotide ; UNIT ; ENGLAND ; LOCI ; CHEK2-ASTERISK-1100DELC ; breast cancer susceptibility ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; association study ; GENETIC-SUSCEPTIBILITY ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR-2
    Abstract: Breast cancer exhibits familial aggregation, consistent with variation in genetic susceptibility to the disease. Known susceptibility genes account for less than 25% of the familial risk of breast cancer, and the residual genetic variance is likely to be due to variants conferring more moderate risks. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study in 4,398 breast cancer cases and 4,316 controls, followed by a third stage in which 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for confirmation in 21,860 cases and 22,578 controls from 22 studies. We used 227,876 SNPs that were estimated to correlate with 77% of known common SNPs in Europeans at r(2) 〉 0.5. SNPs in five novel independent loci exhibited strong and consistent evidence of association with breast cancer (P 〈 10(-7)). Four of these contain plausible causative genes (FGFR2, TNRC9, MAP3K1 and LSP1). At the second stage, 1,792 SNPs were significant at the P 〈 0.05 level compared with an estimated 1,343 that would be expected by chance, indicating that many additional common susceptibility alleles may be identifiable by this approach
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17529967
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Six specific pathogen-free foals shown to be free of equine herpesvirus-1 and 4 (EHV-1 and -4) and lacking in maternally-derived antibodies were used to investigate the pathogenesis of EHV-1 in horses. Following primary intranasal inoculation with EHV-1 all foals showed signs of a mild, self-limiting upper respiratory tract infection. A leucopenia was observed, comprising both a lymphopenia and neutropenia. Virus was isolated from nasal mucus and buffy coat cells over several days during the clinical episode and after the animals became clinically normal. Notwithstanding the mildness of the clinical disease, virus was not eliminated completely and intravenous administration of dexamethasone resulted in reactivation of latent EHV-1 in animals which had received only a single dose of the virus. In a second infection given to four foals, 61 days after the primary inoculation, no clinical signs were observed, haematological changes were minimal and viraemia was absent.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Balb/c mice were inoculated with equine herpesvirsus-1 (EHV-1) by the intranasal (i.n.) route. Mice developed respiratory signs; virus replication occurred in the respiratory tract and viraemia was detected; some mice died. Recovered mice were given a second inoculation with the same strain 5 months later. Following the second infection no mice died, however, virus replication was again observed in the respiratory tract and viraemia was detected once more. Administration of an antiviral agent during the acute infection prevented mice from developing severe clinical signs and all survived. These mice, and some that had survived an acute infection without chemotherapy, were given a variety of stimuli, for example X-irradiation or corticosteroid injection. Reappearance of infectious virus was detected in approx. 1/3 animals in either the respiratory tract or blood. We speculate on the possible sites of latency in the model.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary EHV-1 was inoculated into specific pathogen-free (SPF) foals in order to study uncomplicated primary responses. Infection resulted in a strong serological response recognizing EHV-1-specific antigens; this contrasts with a previous publication where a weak response was recorded in SPF animals. Antibodies to EHV-1 were readily detected by four techniques (virus neutralization, complement fixation, Western blots and immune precipitation), yet there was comparatively little cross-reaction to EHV-4 target antigen. Re-in-oculation with the same virus strain stimulated antibodies to EHV-1 but no additional antigens were recognized and antibodies cross-reacting with EHV-4 antigens were not enhanced. Having characterized the uncomplicated primary response to EHV-1 in SPF foals, further animals were exposed to either EHV-4 or a thymidine kinase-deficient mutant of EHV-1 prior to challenge with w/t EHV-1 to investigate how these infections might modulate the immune responses to EHV-1 or 4. Primary inoculation with EHV-4 or with a thymidine kinase-deficient mutant of EHV-1 produced productive infections as evidenced by virus shedding and pyrexia. In both these cases, however, in contrast to that with w/t EHV-1, the serological response was very weak. Re-infection of foals primed with either EHV-4 or TK-deficient EHV-1 with w/t EHV-1 resulted in a strong response to EHV-1 antigens detected by all four methods. In addition, in the foals given a primary inoculation with EHV-4, superinfection with EHV-1 resulted in a strong cross-reactive response to EHV-4 target antigens. The relevance of these observations to the interpretation of previously reported serological responses to EHVs in SPF and naturally reared animals is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The glycoprotein C (gC) gene of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) was expressed in insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus as several products with apparent molecular weights of 66 kDa–80 kDa. The baculovirus EHV-1 gC products were recognised by monoclonal antibody and by EHV-1 convalescent equine sera, indicating conservation of antigenic determinants and confirming this glycoprotein as a target for the equine immune system. Mice immunized with recombinant EHV-1 gC showed accelerated clearance of EHV-1 from respiratory tissues following intranasal challenge. Virus clearance was accompanied by virus specific antibodies and by cell mediated immune responses measured by a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction and lymphocyte stimulation by killed EHV-1 as antigen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  An epidemiological survey investigated the prevalence of canine herpes virus-1 antibodies in a population of 325 pet dogs in England. Sera were analysed for the presence of canine herpes virus-1 neutralising antibody by means of a serum neutralisation test and for virus-specific IgG and IgM by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In contrast with published results from other parts of the world, canine herpes virus-1 infection was shown to be common among the domestic dog population of England.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) genome was analysed by Southern blot hybridization using the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA polymerase gene as a probe. A 2.5 kilobase region which hybridized specifically to the HSV-1 DNA polymerase gene was identified within the Hind III G fragment at approximate map units 0.334–0.352. In order to provide further evidence that this is the location of the BHV-1 DNA polymerase gene, the 2.5 kilobase region was cloned and part of it sequenced. An uninterrupted stretch of over 800 nucleotides was obtained and an open reading frame spanning the entire sequence was identified. The amino acid sequence that it encodes shows striking homology to a region within the C-terminal half of other herpesvirus DNA polymerases.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Intranasal inoculation of the rabbit was shown to be a viable alternative to eye inoculation as a model to study latency and reactivation of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1). In four different experiments, separate groups of rabbits were intranasally inoculated with BHV-1. In two experiments some rabbits were inoculated instead with a TK-defective (TK−) mutant strain of BHV-1. The development of a specific antibody response was monitored by both virus neutralization and ELISA assays. Cell-mediated immunity was measured by means of a skin test. Many weeks after virus inoculation the rabbits were treated with corticosteroid. Antibody formation after treatment was markedly different in wild type and in TK− virus inoculated groups. In the former, virus reactivation was suggested by a sudden rise in serum antibody levels with kinetics closely resembling those reported in infected calves following corticosteroid administration, whereas in the case of the TK− group no significant increase in antibody activity was measured. Histopathological changes in trigeminal ganglia also indicated reactivation of virus in the wild-type virus infected animals. Further evidence for reactivation was obtained by virus isolation from nasal swabs after corticosteroid treatment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An experimental infection with bovine herpesvirus-1 was established in calves by means of intranasal inoculation. Three calves were infected with the parental strain BHV-1 w/t, three with the TK-defective strain, B 1 and four with the HPMPA-resistant strain, 3 A. Inoculation with w/t virus resulted in a reproducible clinical disease characterised by respiratory distress, fever and the presence of virus in nasal mucus. Following the acute infection, w/t-inoculated animals became seropositive for BHV-1 specific antibody. The TK-defective mutant (BHV-1 B 1) produced an acute infection similar to the parental virus in all three calves inoculated. The HPMPA-resistant mutant (BHV-1 3 A), however, showed a reduced pattern of infection and virus of lower titre was isolated from three of four calves; the antibody responses were generally lower, and one calf remained seronegative until reactivation. Following stimulation with dexamethasone 72 days after the primary inoculation, virus was re-isolated from all wild type-inoculated calves. In contrast, no evidence of reactivation was obtained from the three B 1-inoculated animals. However, all four animals inoculated with the mutant 3 A showed virus reactivation including the calf which had remained seronegative following primary virus inoculation. Previous studies have suggested that drug-resistance mutations in herpesviruses frequently are associated with reduced pathogenicity on the basis of experiments in laboratory models. The importance of the present study is the demonstration that two different drug-resistant variants of an alpha herpesvirus both have altered pathogenicity in the natural host for that infection. These results also have implications for the design and use of attenuated vaccine strains.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1520-5835
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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