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  • 1
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    New York, NY : Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
    Keywords: Medicine ; Internal Medicine ; Oncology ; Urology ; Medicine & Public Health ; Oncology ; Urology/Andrology ; Internal Medicine ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9781603278294
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Key words Staurosporine ; 7-hydroxy ; Protein kinase antagonist ; α1-Acidic glycoprotein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine; NSC 638850) is a protein kinase antagonist selected for clinical trial based in part on evidence of efficacy in a preclinical renal carcinoma xenograft model. Schedule studies and in vitro studies suggested that a 72-h continuous infusion would be appropriate. In rats and dogs, maximum tolerated doses produced peak plasma concentrations of approximately 0.2–0.3 μM. However, concentrations 10-fold greater are well tolerated in humans, and the compound has a markedly prolonged T1/2. Specific binding to human α1-acidic glycoprotein has been demonstrated. These findings reinforce the need to consider actual clinical pharmacology data in “real time” with phase I studies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] A variety of biological materials have been used as sources of genomic DNA for PCR. Human genetic studies commonly use genomic DNA extracted from buffy coats1,2. Genomic DNA extracted from whole blood is also used in PCR by forensic laboratories3–5. However, buffy coats or whole blood for DNA ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-8744
    Keywords: carboxyamido-triazole ; bioavailability ; chronopharmacology ; pharmacokinetics ; food
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Carboxyamido-triazole (CAI) is an anti-invasive, antimetastatic, antiangiogenic agent in clinical development for cancer treatment. It has been postulated that food might enhance the oral absorption of micronized CAI based on an apparent discrepancy in steady state maximum concentrations when taken without regard to meals vs. fasting. The purpose of this study was to determine if a standardized meal affects the absorption and pharmacokinetics of this agent. Twelve patients with refractory cancers and good end organ function were randomized to receive two doses of CAI (250 mg/m 2 ) with and without a standardized high fat meal. One cohort of 6 patients received these doses at 9 AM, and the remaining 6 patients received CAI at 9 PM. Blood was obtained prior to each dose, and serially thereafter. A series of pharmacokinetic (PK) models were fit to the concentration–time data. PK parameters were ultimately calculated using a model which allows simultaneous estimation of parameters from both test doses using nonlinear least squares analysis with ADAPT II. This model estimates independent absorption rate constants and relative fraction absorbed for each condition. AUC 0–t was determined using the trapezoidal method, extrapolated to infinity, and used to calculate the relative bioavailability. No significant differences in PK parameters were noted between the morning and evening cohorts. However, the relative bioavailability, as measured by AUC 0–∞, of CAI was significantly increased when administered with a high fat meal compared to fasting (138.9 vs. 52.2 μg * hr/ml; p=0.0005). The magnitude of the increase in relative bioavailability of CAI taken with food could have profound implications for patients who may inadvertently take this medication shortly after eating.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7209
    Keywords: Anti-angiogenesis ; carboxyamido-triazole ; clinical experience ; interleukin-12 ; thalidomide ; TNP-470
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Angiogenesis was postulated to be a critical prognostic factor and therapeutic focus for malignancy more than two decades ago. Recent studies indicate quantitative assessments of microvessel count to be an independent prognostic variable for disease-free and overall survival in a wide variety of tumors, and that angiogenesis may be a feasible target against which to intervene pharmacologically. Several new and old agents have been found to have anti-angiogenic activity and have reached clinical trial. This review will focus on four agents under investigation in the US: carboxyamido-triazole (CAI), thalidomide, TNP-470 and interleukin (IL)-12. CAI, originally identified for its anti-invasive capacity, has been shown to inhibit tumor and endothelial cell proliferation by inhibition of calcium uptake. It is administered orally, is generally well tolerated, and has been shown to induce disease stabilization and occasional reductions in tumor mass. Thalidomide was shown to inhibit growth factor-induced neovessel formation, a process that can also explain its earlier devastating clinical toxicity. It is administered orally, and is currently in phase II clinical trials for prostate cancer, glioblastoma multiforme and breast cancer. TNP-470 is a fumagillin analog that has been shown in in vivo models to be a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis at concentrations that are cytostatic to endothelial cells and tumor cells. Lastly, IL-12 may exert its anti-angiogenic effects through activation of interferon-γ to up-regulate interferon-inducible protein-10, an anti-angiogenic cytokine. Phase I clinical trials of IL-12 have shown disease stabilization in several tumor types in response to s.c. administration or using genetically engineered IL-12-expressing patient fibroblasts. These promising new agents join the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as important new drugs in the anti-cancer armamentarium.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Key words Thalidomide ; PSA ; LNCaP cells ; PC-3 cells ; cDNA array
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thalidomide has been shown to have species- and metabolic-dependent antiangiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting its potential in treating human angiogenesis-dependent pathologies such as solid tumors. Based on promising preclinical studies, thalidomide has entered phase II clinical trials for prostate, brain, breast cancer, and Kaposi's sarcoma. However, the antiangiogenic mechanism of action is largely unresolved, as are its effects on tumor-associated gene expression, cytokine secretion, etc. We have investigated the effects of thalidomide on: 1) the secretion of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a human androgen-dependent prostate cell line; 2) growth and viability of human prostate cells; and 3) differential gene expression profiles of thalidomide-treated vs untreated human prostate cells. A human androgen-dependent prostate carcinoma cell line (LNCaP) and a human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell line (PC-3) were incubated with thalidomide 0.6, 6, or 60 μg/mL for 5–6 days. Secreted PSA from LNCaP cells was measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Cell viability studies were conducted in both LNCaP and PC-3 cells using the same thalidomide concentrations. Furthermore, the differential gene expression of thalidomide-treated LNCaP cells was compared to that of untreated control cells using a commercially available human cancer cDNA expression array system. Thalidomide-treated LNCaP cells demonstrated increased PSA/cell levels at all concentrations tested compared to untreated control cells. Thalidomide demonstrated a cytostatic effect in LNCaP cells but had no appreciable effect on PC-3 cell viability compared to untreated control cells. Comparison of cDNA expression arrays hybridized with thalidomide-treated LNCaP cDNA probes suggests that thalidomide may up- or downregulate expression of angiogenesis-related genes, i.e., vitronectin, but these differential effects require further verification. Thalidomide over a range of doses has demonstrated nontoxic, cytostatic activity in LNCaP cells and significant upregulation of LNCaP cell PSA secretion in vitro. Furthermore, preliminary data from cDNA nucleic acid arrays of thalidomide-treated LNCaP cells suggest that thalidomide upregulates a potential angiogenic modulatory protein, the vitronectin precursor, which may eventually link thalidomide's antiangiogenic activity with modulation of angiogenic vascular integrin pathways.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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