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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Key words X-ray crystallography ; Electron microscopy ; Biological databases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Advances in structural biology are opening greater opportunities for understanding biological structures from the cellular to the atomic level. Particularly promising are the links that can be established between the information provided by electron microscopy and the atomic structures derived from X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Combining such different kinds of structural data can result in novel biological information on the interaction of biomolecules in large supramolecular assemblies. As a consequence, the need to develop new databases in the field of structural biology that allow for an integrated access to data from all the experimental techniques is becoming critical. Pilot studies performed in recent years have already established a solid background as far as the basic information that an integrated macromolecular structure database should contain, as well as the basic principles for integration. These efforts started in the context of the BioImage project, and resulted in a first complete database prototype that provided a versatile platform for the linking of atomic models or X-ray diffraction data with electron microscopy information. Analysis of the requirements needed to combine data at different levels of resolution have resulted in sets of specifications that make possible the integration of all these different types in the context of a web environment. The case of a structural study linking electron microscopy and X-ray data, which is already contained within the BioImage data base and in the Protein Data Bank, is used here to illustrate the current approach, while a general discussion highlights the urgent need for integrated databases.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1545-9985
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Although many viral receptors have been identified, the ways in which they interact with their cognate viruses are not understood at the molecular level. We have determined the X-ray structure of a complex between calcium-containing modules of the very low-density lipoprotein receptor and the minor ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: Fab structures ; viral epitopes ; foot-and-mouth disease virus ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The Fab fragment of the neutralizing monoclonal antibody SD6 elicited against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) C-SBcl and its complex with a peptide, corresponding to the major antigenic site of FMDV (VPl residues 136-150, YTASARGDLAHLTTT), have been crystallized using the hanging drop vapor diffusion techniques. For the isolated Fab, crystals diffracting to 2.5 Å resolution were obtained at room temperature using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. These crystals are monoclinic, space group C2, and unit cell parameters a = 109.53 Å, b = 89.12 Å, c = 64.04 Å, and β = 112.9° and contain one Fab molecule per asymmetric unit. Crystals from the complex diffract, at least, to 2.8 Å resolution and were obtained, at room temperature, using PEG as precipitant. These crystals are monoclinic, space group P2, and unit cell parameters a = 56.11 Å, b = 60.67 Å, c = 143.45 Å, and β = 95.4°, Density packing considerations indicate that there are two Fab molecules in the asymmetric unit. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: urea cycle ; frog ; liver ; carbamyl phosphate synthetase ; X-ray diffraction ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (ammonia; E C 6.3.4.16) was purified from the liver of Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog). Crystals of the protein have been obtained at 22°C by the hanging drop vapor diffusion technique, with polyethylene glycol as precipitant. Tetragonal crystals of about 0.3 × 0.3 × 0.7 mm diffract at room temperature to at least 3.5 Å using a conventional source and are stable to X-radiation for about 12 h. Therefore, these crystals are suitablefor high resolution studies. The space group is P41212 (or its enantiomorph P43212), with unit cell dimensions a = b = 291.6 Å and c = 189.4 Å. Density packing considerations areconsistent with the presence of 4-6 monomers (Mr of the monomer, 160,000) in the asymmetric unit. Amino-terminal sequence of the enzyme and of a chymotryptic fragment of 73.7 kDa containing the COOH-terminus has been obtained. The extensive sequence identity with rat and human carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I indicates the relevance for mammals of structural data obtained with the frog enzyme. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: antibody structure ; viral neutralization ; human rhinovirus ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The structure of the complex between the Fab fragment of a human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2) neutralizing antibody (8F5) and a cross-reactive synthetic peptide derived from the viral capsid protein VP2 has been recently determined by crystallographic methods.1 The conformation adopted by the peptide was very similar to and could be superimposed onto the corresponding region of the viral protein VP2 of human rhinovirus 1A (HRV1A) whose three-dimensional structure is known.2 The structure of the Fab fragment determined in the complex was docked onto the viral capsid using the superimposition transformation found for the peptide. In the resulting model the Fab protrudes almost radially to about 60 Å from the surface of the virion without any major steric problem. The Fab fragment was then placed on each one of the 60 equivalent epitopes using the T = 1 icosahedral symmetry of the virus. The closest pairs of Fab fragments are related by viral 2-fold axes and run almost parallel to each other without clashing. These axes of symmetry from the viral particle could thus be coincident with the dyad axes of the antibodies. Furthermore, comparison of the three-dimensional structure of the Fab/peptide complex with the structure of the Fab fragment alone3 indicates that the flexibility of the antibody's elbow would facilitate bivalent attachment to the same viral particle. In accordance with the docking results, experimental determination of the stoichiometry of binding yielded a ratio of 30 IgG molecules per virion also suggesting bivalent attachment of antibody 8F5 onto the viral particle. The neutralization of viral infectivity, being neither aggregation (this paper) nor inhibition of receptor binding,4 might be mainly achieved by reducing viral spread from cell to cell and/or inhibition of uncoating. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1399-0047
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Haem-containing catalases are homotetrameric molecules that degrade hydrogen peroxide. Phylogenetically, the haem-containing catalases can be grouped into three main lines or clades. The crystal structures of seven catalases have been determined, all from clades II and III. In order to obtain a structure of an enzyme from clade I, which includes all plant, algae and some bacterial enzymes, two bacterial catalases, CatF from Pseudomonas syringae and Kat from Listeria seeligeri, have been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique, using PEG and ammonium sulfate as precipitants, respectively. Crystals of P. syringae CatF, with a plate-like morphology, belong to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.6, b = 153.9, c = 109.2 Å, β = 102.8°. From these crystals a diffraction data set to 1.8 Å resolution with 98% completeness was collected using synchrotron radiation. Crystals of L. seeligeri Kat, with a well developed bipyramidal morphology, belong to space group I222 (or I212121), with unit-cell parameters a = 74.4, b = 121.3, c = 368.5 Å. These crystals diffracted beyond 2.2 Å resolution when using synchrotron radiation, but presented anisotropic diffraction, with the weakest direction perpendicular to the long c axis.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1399-0047
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The gene for Escherichia coli N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) was cloned in a plasmid and expressed in E. coli, allowing enzyme purification in three steps. NAGK exhibits high specific activity (1.1 µmol s−1 mg−1), lacks Met1 and forms dimers (shown by cross-linking). Crystals of unliganded NAGK diffract to 2 Å and belong to space group P6122 or its enantiomorph P6522 (unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.6, c = 278.0 Å) with two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Crystals of NAGK with acetylglutamate and the ATP analogue AMPPNP diffract to 1.8 Å and belong to space group C2221 (unit-cell parameters a = 60.0, b = 71.9, c = 107.4 Å), with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. NAGK crystallization will allow the determination of proposed structural similarities to carbamate kinase.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 55 (1999), S. 1066-1068 
    ISSN: 1399-0047
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Catalase (hydrogen peroxide:hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase, E.C. 1.11.1.6) is present in most aerobic prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Despite a large number of studies on catalases, the only mammalian catalase structure available is that from beef liver, in which about 50% of the haem groups are degraded to bile pigments. Three different crystal forms of human erythrocyte catalase were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique using PEG as precipitant. Monoclinic crystals, with space group P21 and unit-cell parameters a = 102.9, b = 140.0, c = 173.6 Å and β = 103.2°, require NADP(H) in the crystallization solution. Two types of hexagonal packing, with unit-cell parameters of either a = b = 86.9, c = 255.5 Å or a = b = 90.0, c = 521.2 Å, were obtained under identical crystallization conditions in the absence of NADP(H). Only one diffraction data set could be collected: this was obtained from the hexagonal crystals with the smaller c axis using synchrotron radiation, with resolution to 2.65 Å. A molecular-replacement solution, determined using a modified beef-liver catalase model as a search structure, corresponds to space group P6422 and contains a single subunit in the asymmetric unit, with an estimated solvent volume of about 50%. The packing determined suggests how minor rearrangements might allow the transition between both hexagonal crystal forms and provides an explanation for the anisotropic character of the corresponding diffractions.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1399-0047
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Human rhinoviruses, the major cause of mild recurrent infections of the upper respiratory tract, are small icosahedral particles. Over 100 different serotypes have been identified. The majority (91 serotypes) use intercellular adhesion molecule 1 as the cell-attachment site; ten serotypes (the minor group) bind to members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Three different crystal forms of the minor-group human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2) were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique using ammonium sulfate and sodium/potassium phosphate as precipitants. Monoclinic crystals, space group P21, diffracted at least to 2.8 Å resolution, and two complete virus particles were located in the crystal asymmetric unit. A second type of crystals had a compact cubic like morphology and diffracted beyond 2.5 Å resolution. These crystals belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 309.3, b = 353.5, c = 759.6 Å, and contain one virus particle in the asymmetric unit. A third type of crystals, with a prismatic shape and belonging to space group I222, was also obtained under similar crystallization conditions. These latter crystals, with unit-cell parameters a = 308.7, b = 352.2, c = 380.5 Å, diffracted to high resolution (beyond 1.8 Å) and contained 15 protomers per asymmetric unit; this requires that three perpendicular crystal twofold axes coincide with three of the viral particle's dyad axes.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Optimal conditions for studying the ultrastructure of chromatin fibers of histone-containing spermatozoa in thin sections have been determined. Better results for preservation in sperm of the sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa, have been found than in different frog species studied. The fine structure of chromatin fibers after different treatments was studied by computer methods. A clear superbead structure was found under all conditions which preserve the chromatin fibres. These have a diameter of 30 nm, with superbeads about 33 nm long. In the best preserved cases an additional periodicity of 11 nm along the fibres was found. There is no clear relationship of this periodicity with an eventual solenoidal structure of the chromatin fibers.
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