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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Trisomy 8, in mosaic or non-mosaic form is an extremely rare chromosomal condition in man. Liveborn subjects usually present with mental retardation, bone and joint anomalies and a variety of other physical anomalies. The mental retardation associated with the condition is, however, usually moderate compared to that found in other viable human autosomal trisomic conditions. The present report describes a trisomy 8 mosaic male subject with normal IQ and near-normal phenotype, ascertained through infertility. Chromosome studies on peripheral blood lymphocytes reveal a pure trisomy 8 constitution; cultured skin fibroblasts show 46,XY/47,XY+8 mosaicism. At meiosis, the extra No. 8 chromosome is missing from the germ line. The testicular histology indicates a germ cell maturation arrest in many spermatocytes and the patient is severely oligospermic. Biochemical studies to assay levels of glutathione reductase, a red cell enzyme, the gene for which resides in chromosome 8, show increased levels in the trisomy 8 patient compared with controls.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Key words Child abuse ; Shaken baby syndrome ; Brain injury ; Infants ; Children ; Neuroimaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Acute CT/MRI findings were examined in a prospective, longitudinal study of 60 children 0–6 years of age hospitalized for moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI was categorized as either inflicted (n=31) or noninflicted (n=29). Glasgow Coma Scale scores and perinatal history were comparable in both groups. Acute CT/MRI studies were visually inspected by a radiologist blind to group membership. Compared with the noninflicted TBI group, the inflicted TBI group had significantly elevated rates of subdural interhemispheric and convexity hemorrhages as well as signs of pre-existing brain abnormality, including cerebral atrophy, subdural hygroma, and ex vacuo ventriculomegaly. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage, shear injury, and skull fractures were more frequent after noninflicted TBI. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and infarct/edema occurred with comparable frequency in both groups. Characteristic acute neuroimaging findings of inflicted TBI included multiple extraaxial hemorrhages in addition to the mild atrophy, subdural hygromas, and ventriculomegaly that suggest prior brain abnormality.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chromosoma 81 (1980), S. 9-17 
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cytological evidence for the existence of a Y-autosomal rearrangement in meiotic cells of Sxr mice has been sought. At pachytene, in silverstained light microscope spread preparations of XY, Sxr/+ and XO, Sxr/+ spermatocytes, evidence for pairing or association between a possible Y-bearing segment of a specific autosome and a sex chromosome could not, however, be found. Such sex chromosome-autosome associations as were seen were non-specific in nature, and occurred no more often in Sxr mice than in controls.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0633
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: From July 1989 to December 1994, an echo sounder provided monthly estimates, usually for both day and night, of pelagic salmonid densities in the North and South Basins of Windermere, the largest natural lake in England. Sampling was along contiguous transects, three in the North Basin and five in the South Basin. Records for Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) could not be separated from those for brown trout (Salmo trutta), but previous sampling by gill-nets and anglers showed that charr formed over 90% of this mixed population in the North Basin and about 60–75% in the South Basin. Associated with the increasing eutrophication of the lake, there has been a decline in anglers' catches of charr and, since 1984, an increase in brown trout taken in the pelagic zone of the South Basin. The echo-sounder data showed that pelagic salmonid density in the North Basin was about two to five times that in the more eutrophic South Basin in 1989, 1990 and 1991. Since the start, in April 1992, of the reduction of phosphorus discharged from sewage works, this ratio has decreased, especially at night when the highest densities were recorded. This improvement was chiefly due to a significant (P〈0.001) increase in the density of small fish (length 〈20 cm), in both the upper (depth 〈20 m) and deeper (depth 〉20 m) water layers. Although a similar improvement has still to be shown in the upper water layer by larger fish above the size limit for removal by angling (20 cm), there has been a significant increase (P〈0.01) in the density of these fish in the deeper water layer of the South Basin. The increased density of small fish suggests that the stock available to charr anglers (fish 〉20 cm at water depths 〈20 m) should increase in the next few years, especially in the South Basin. It is therefore important to continue the monitoring program and thus ensure that there is advance warning of any marked changes in charr stocks.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 320 (1986), S. 466-466 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] FROM statistical studies, Baillie etal1 propose the re-dating, which we accept, of oak tree-ring chronologies2 referred to by us as Type A, and make suggestions, to which we here add information, concerning the provenance of the timber and the relevance of absent sapwood to the dating of artefacts ...
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 199 (1963), S. 1089-1090 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] a.-RuCla. This is produced3,4 by a slow reaction between the metal and chlorine in siliceous vessels at temperatures above 600 C. However, contact of the metal with the silica causes the a-RuCl3 to be contaminated with the soluble and relatively volatile oxide chloride, Ru2OCl6 (since this is ...
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0633
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract– Analysis of the Windermere (England), Perca fluviatilis (1965–1997) and Esox lucius (1943-1997) fishery data indicates there have been substantial changes in sex ratios through time. In the case of perch, a 1976 perch disease outbreak substantially skewed the sex ratio in favor of females. It took over a decade for the fishery to recover to its pre-1976 state. In the case of pike, both catch and year-class data are female biased, but this bias has significantly weakened through time. This trend towards proportionately more males through time may reflect an effect of increasing spring temperatures or an evolutionary or phenotypic response to female-biased fishing pressure.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: One hundred zebra fish per tank were maintained for 112 days at 24°C or 28°C in glass aquaria and fed a diet of flaked food made without cellulose (13.45 kJ g−1, metabolizable energy, Type A) or with cellulose (8.71 kJ g−1, metabolizable energy, Type B). Each experimental condition was repeated in triplicate (12 tanks). The weight of food given daily to the fish was based on daily records of survivors (from which mortality rates were calculated) and wet wt of fish (measured every 14 days) in each tank. All fish were fed with the same weight of food per day and the quantity of energy in the food in excess of standard metabolism (as a proportion of SM) was approximately 0–5 for fish maintained at 28°C and fed food B, 1–0 for fish maintained at 24°C and fed food B, 1–5 for fish maintained at 28°C and fed food A, and 2.2 for fish maintained at 24°C and fed food A.Non-ionized ammonia, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen in the tanks did not reach toxic levels although there was an increase in total ammonium nitrogen in one tank and a subsequent heavy mortality. It was assumed that this was caused by the build up of pathogenic bacteria. Apart from this tank, mortality was highest in tanks at 28°C with fish fed food A and second highest in tanks at 24°C with fish fed on the same diet. Growth was measured in units of length, wet and dry weights, carbon and energy. There was a good correlation (P 〈 0.001) between carbon (mgC mg−1) and calorific (J mg−1) values and a conversion factor of 46.2 J (mgC)−1 was derived. Fish maintained at 24°C and fed food A had the highest rates of growth both in weight and in energy value per unit weight. Fish fed the same diet but kept at 28°C had the lowest growth rates. Both these groups of fish had the highest coefficients of variation in wet weights which increased during the experiment, indicating an increase in interaction within the tanks. There was agreement between the energy value of fish sampled for growth and a condition factor based on the length-weight relationships of fish remaining in the tanks. A correlation (P 〈 0.05) was found between instantaneous mortality and growth rates for fish between tanks when those maintained at 28°C and fed on food A were ignored.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Perch Perca fluviatilis recruitment (based on the catch per unit effort, CPUE, of 2 or 3 year male perch) varied greatly from 1941 to 1995 in Windermere, U.K., with year class strengths strongly synchronous between the two basins of this temperate, mesotrophic lake. Statistically significant modified Ricker (Saila-Lorda) stock-recruitment curves could be fitted to data from three of four sampling sites, while the presence of widespread disease and late summer water temperature were also important explanatory variables. Multiple-regression analyses revealed no influences of pike Esox lucius recruitment, zooplankton abundance, or the climatic influences (i.e. North Atlantic Oscillation and displacement of the summer position of the Gulf Stream) on perch recruitment over and above associated influences from temperature. Fitted models realistically explained up to c. 60% of the observed variation in perch recruitment.
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