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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Sexual dysfunction ; Longitudinal investigation ; Prevalence ; Chronicity ; Depressive and anxiety disorder ; Sex differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a cohort of young Swiss adults, sexual disturbances and dysfunctions were assessed by interview four times between ages 20 and 30 years. Over 10 years almost every second female and every third male subject reported disturbances. In females at age 30 years, the prevalence of orgasmic difficulties and of dyspareunia corresponded to non-clinical samples of other studies. Also, in accordance with the literature, impaired interest was much more prevalent in females. In males and females, sexual disturbances were to some extent associated with anxiety and depression; in addition, in women, they were also associated with social phobia and eating disorders. With regard to neuroticism, negative affect and reports of an unsatisfactory childhood, subjects with temporary disturbances resembled more strongly those with chronic problems than controls. Compared with the controls, women's sexual disturbances were more chronic and more strongly associated with minor psychiatric symptoms and personality deviance; this finding was less pronounced in men.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Child sexual abuse ; Adult age ; Family risk factors ; Anxiety ; Depression ; Personality
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the course of a 10-year longitudinal investigation of young Swiss adults, childhood sexual abuse was assessed at the age of 30 years. It was reported by 11.5% of women and by 3.5% of men; 56% of the females had been abused by relatives (none of the males), 20% by fathers. Abuse cases tended to be more depressed and anxious; they reported more suicide attempts and more sexual problems than controls and also slightly more psychiatric symptoms and neuroticism. Childhood familial risk factors were more frequent for abuse cases than for controls. Depression at adult age was more strongly connected with early familial risk factors than with early sexual abuse.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Menstrual syndrome ; Epidemiology ; Menstrual problems
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This paper reports on the prevalence of emotional and somatic symptoms of the pre- and peri-menstrual phases of the female reproductive cycle among women who participated in a 10-year prospective epidemiologic cohort study of young adults in Zurich, Switzerland. The association between menstrual syndrome and sociodemographic features, personal habits, and psychopathologyis investigated. The findings confirm those of previous studies, which have shown that symptoms of menstrual syndrome are quite common in non-clinical samples in the community, and increase with age. Women with menstrual problems could be distinguished from other women in a number of domains, including demographic characteristics such as nulliparity, higher educational level, distressing life events, lack of oral contraceptive use, psychiatric disorders, and personality traits. The combined evidence for a strong association between menstrual syndrome and anxiety, both in the subjects and their relatives, suggests that menstrual problems may represent a manifestation of underlying anxiety disorders rather than strictly affective disorders as traditionally believed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Objective:  The aim of this follow-up study was to investigate the course of performance in attentional tasks in children with ADHD and normal controls in late childhood and preadolescence over short periods of time. The development of two dimensions of attention was compared: alertness/arousal and inhibitory control.Method:  Children with ADHD (N = 28) and normal controls (N = 25) were examined at three times: at baseline (age mean = 10.8 years, SD = 1.5), after one year (age mean = 12.0 years, SD = 1.6), and after 2.6 years (age mean = 13.3 years, SD = 1.6). They performed two tasks of a computerized battery for attentional performance: Alertness – a test of simple reaction time to visual stimuli contrasting a condition with and without auditory warning signal, and Incompatibility – a test of spatial interference/inhibitory control. Clinical diagnosis according to DSM-III-R criteria was established at time 1 and time 3 by structured diagnostic interviews.Results:  In the Alertness task significant group differences regarding increased reaction time variability in ADHD, but not for reaction time itself, were found at time 1 and more pronounced at time 2. At time 3 group differences had disappeared. In the Incompatibility task group differences in number of errors were not observed at time 1, whereas children with ADHD made significantly more errors at time 2 and less pronounced at time 3. The degree of clinical symptom remission after 2.6 years was not related to changes in neuropsychological performance.Conclusion:  When measuring attentional functions, the selection of an appropriate time window seems to be essential for the detection of group differences between ADHD children and controls, because group differences are most pronounced before adolescence. The different developmental course of selective components of attention should be taken into account.
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