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  • 1
    Abstract: SUMMARY: The versatility of the bacteriophage Cre/LoxP system is dependent on the availability of a spectrum of tissue-specific Cre transgenic mice to address a host of biological questions. In this paper, we report on the generation of an inducible Tie2Cre transgenic mouse line that facilitates gene targeting exclusively in endothelial cells. The temporal manner of recombination is feasible through the use of a Cre-estrogen receptor fusion protein ER(T2) and was, in practical terms, achieved by feeding the animals the estrogen antagonist tamoxifen orally for 5 weeks. High efficiency of recombination was found in the vast majority of endothelial cell populations examined, as monitored by an EGFP reporter mouse line. Critically, no EGFP expression was observed in any uninduced mice. This inducible Cre line will be a very beneficial asset to investigating the role of endothelial specific genes in the adult mouse and to induce transgenes in the endothelium in an extremely efficient manner. genesis 33:191-197, 2002.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12203917
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; MARKER ; T-CELLS ; DELETION ; TRANSGENIC MICE ; GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN ; STRAIN ; END-PRODUCTS
    Abstract: The use of the Cre/loxP system has greatly empowered the field of gene targeting. Here we describe the successful establishment of a novel knock-in EGFP reporter mouse line to monitor Cre-induced recombination in the vast majority of cell types. The value of this reporter mouse line is demonstrated by the use of a novel Tie2Cre transgenic mouse line that facilitates gene targeting in endothelial and hematopoietic cells. High efficiency of recombination was found in all endothelial cells and in the majority of hematopoietic cells but was absent in other tissues. Furthermore, in the second generation, the Tie2Cre mouse can be used to get 100% recombination of one allele, whilst allowing tissue specific in the second, therefore offering excellent efficiency.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 11353516
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 108 (1998), S. 9371-9382 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Liquid helium droplets of initial mean cluster size, 〈N〉, ranging from 600 to 8000 atoms are doped with argon using the pick-up technique. The doped clusters are ionized by electron impact, and the resulting fragment ions are monitored as a function of argon pressure in the pick-up volume. Analysis of the pressure dependent ion signals is used to determine (1) the probability for charge transfer from He+ to the Ar atoms within the droplet, and (2) the probability for fragmentation of the Ark subclusters upon ionization. The measured charge transfer probability from He+ to Ar ranges from 0.05±0.02 for clusters of mean original size 〈N〉=8000 to 0.26±0.05 for 〈N〉=600. Charge transfer to the Ark constituent results in the following qualitative trends; a single Ar atom yields HenAr+ ions; Ar2 mainly yields Ar2+, and Ar3 mainly fragments to yield Ar2+. Simulations of the results are performed to extract information on how the charge transfer and fragmentation processes within the ionized droplet dependent on the size of the helium droplet and the number of argon atoms captured. We use the positive-hole resonant-hopping mechanism to determine that the He+ hops 3–4 times prior to localization with either the Ar dopant or another He atom to form He2+. This corresponds to a time scale for He2+ formation of 60–80 fs. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 109 (1998), S. 10679-10687 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An investigation of the electron impact ionization and fragmentation of helium clusters that contain Ne atoms and Nek subclusters has been performed. The charge transfer probability from He+ to Ne and the branching ratios for fragmentation of the Nek subclusters were found by analyzing the dependence of the ion signal intensities on the Ne pressure in the "pickup" region. The measured charge transfer probability from He+ to Ne ranges from 0.06±0.01 for clusters of mean original size 〈N〉=3300 to 0.43±0.02 for 〈N〉=1100. Charge transfer to a single Ne atom within the helium clusters never yields bare Ne+ ions. Instead, fragments of the type NeHen+ are produced. The charge transfer from He+ to Ne2 subclusters yields mainly Ne2+ for smaller initial cluster sizes, but NeHen+ or Ne2Hen+ fragments are more probable for larger clusters. This shows that He droplets of a few thousand atoms are able to cage Ne2 subclusters by dissipating the entire energy released by charge transfer and formation and vibrational relaxation of the Ne2+ ion. Interestingly, it was found that in these relatively small helium clusters the Ne3 and Ne4 subclusters never survive the charge transfer from He+. Fragments such as Ne2+ and Ne2Hen+ are more likely to survive than are Ne3+ and Ne4+. In general, the results presented here are qualitatively similar to those for a recent study of the ionization of Ar in helium droplets. In both cases fragmentation to the bare ion is rare, while fragmentation to the dimer ion dominates. However, the helium cluster caging effect is more efficient for Ne subclusters than for Ar subclusters. Also, there is no evidence for shell structures in the NeHen+ ion fragment distributions. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 109 (1998), S. 10195-10200 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Pure liquid helium droplets of mean size 〈N〉=100–15 000 atoms ionized by electron impact show surprisingly similar ion fragment distributions. For all cluster sizes He2+ is the most probable cluster ion fragment, accounting for 30%–70% of the total ion yield. The high relative intensity of He2+ for the larger clusters shows that the droplets dissipate the ionization energy through an impulsive process, which ejects He2+ from the cluster, rather than by thermal evaporation. The other helium ion fragments that have been the focus of previous studies are most likely formed by a similar mechanism. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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