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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Diastolic dysfunction ; Coenzyme Q10 ; Hypertension ; Mitral valve prolapse ; Fatigue
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Symptoms of fatigue and activity impairment, atypical precordial pain, and cardiac arrhythmia frequently precede by years the development of congestive heart failure. Of 115 patients with these symptoms, 60 were diagnosed as having hypertensive cardiovascular disease, 27 mitral valve prolapse syndrome, and 28 chronic fatigue syndrome. These symptoms are common with diastolic dysfunction, and diastolic function is energy dependent. All patients had blood pressure, clinical status, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) blood levels and echocardiographic measurement of diastolic function, systolic function, and myocardial thickness recorded before and after CoQ10 replacement. At control, 63 patients were functional class III and 54 class II; all showed diastolic dysfunction; the mean CoQ10 blood level was 0.855 μNg/ml; 65%,15%, and 7% showed significant myocardial hypertrophy, and 87%, 30%, and 11% had elevated blood pressure readings in hypertensive disease, mitral valve prolapse and chronic fatigue syndrome respectively. Except for higher blood pressure levels and more myocardial thickening in the hypertensive patients, there was little difference between the three groups. CoQ10 administration resulted in improvement in all; reduction in high blood pressure in 80%, and improvement in diastolic function in all patients with follow-up echocardiograms to date; a reduction in myocardial thickness in 53% of hypertensives and 36% of the combined prolapse and fatigue syndrome groups; and a reduced fractional shortening in those high at control and an increase in those initially low. Isolated diastolic dysfunction associated with moderately low CoQ10 blood levels is an extremely frequent finding in patients with three varied clinical entities sharing similar symptoms and CoQ10 replacement results in clinical improvement, lowering of elevated blood pressures, improved diastolic function, a decrease in myocardial thickness, and a normalization of systolic function.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: CoQ10 ; Heart surgery ; Cardiac function ; Myocardial CoQ10 and ATP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a natural and essential cofactor in the heart. It is the primary redox coupler in the respiratory chain, a potent free radical scavenger, and a superoxide inhibitor. In this study the myocardial protective effects of CoQ10 were determined in high-risk (n = 10) patients during heart surgery compared to that found in placebo controls (n = 10). In both groups, there was a blood CoQ10 deficiency (〈0.6 μg/ml), low cardiac index (CI 〈 2.4 1/m2 per minute), and low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 〈 35%) before treatment. CoQ10 (100 mg per day) was given orally for 14 days before and 30 days after surgery. Presurgical CoQl0 treatment significantly (P 〈 0.01) improved blood and myocardial CoQ10 and myocardial ATP compared to that found in the control group. Cardiac functions (CI and LVEF) were improved but not significantly. After cardiac cooling, rewarming, and reperfusion; blood and tissue CoQ10 and tissue ATP levels were maintained in the normal ranges in the CoQ10 patients. Cardiac pumping (CI) and LVEF were significantly (P 〈 0.01) improved. The recovery course was short (3–5 days) and uncomplicated. In the control group blood and tissue CoQ10, tissue ATP levels, and cardiac functions were depressed after surgery. The recovery course was long (15–30 days) and complicated. Positive relationships between blood and myocardial CoQ10, myocardial ATP, cardiac function, and the postoperative recovery time and course found in both study groups show the therapeutic benefits of CoQ10 in preserving the myocardium during heart surgery. CoQ10 treatment is especially indicated in high-risk cardiac surgery patients who have a natural or clinically induced CoQ10 deficiency.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Heart transplantation ; Heart ubiquinone ; Blood and plasma ubiquinone ; Plasma α-tocopherol ; Transplant rejection ; Free radicals ; Antioxidants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Nine patients who underwent heart transplantation (one female; average age 48 ± 11, range 19–58 years) were followed in respect to contents of right-sided heart septum, blood and plasma ubiquinone (UQ), plasma α-tocopherol (αT), and plasma free cholesterol (FC). In contrast to healthy persons, substantial inter- and intraindividual variations were observed; individually low values were seen with rejection. Heart muscle UQ in well-treated patients averaged 0.33 ± 0.08, range 0.06–0.58 μg mg−1 (0.38 ± 0.09 μmol g−1 dry weight) and was not different from healthy individuals. Plasma UQ, αT; and FC averaged 0.63 ± 0.33 μg ml−1 (P 〈 0.05 versus sedentary controls), 8.1 ± 4.0 μg ml−1 (P 〈 0.01), and 0.52 ± 0.23 mg ml−1 (P 〈 0.05). Corresponding molar values were 0.73 ± 0.37 (UQ), 2.0 ± 1.1 μmol l−1 (αT), and 1.42 ± 0.54 mmol 1−1 (FC). Blood and plasma UQ values were identical. A saturationlike relationship was found between heart and blood UQ: blood contents below 0.7 μg ml−1 (0.8 μmol l−1) corresponded to markedly lowered heart contents. In four patients in whom blood samples were taken close to a fatal complication it averaged 0.42 μg ml−1 (0.49 μmol l−t, P 〈 0.01). When low heart muscle and blood ubiquinone were present, other variables such as left ventricle cardiac output or cycle ergometer performance was markedly impaired. Plasma UQ and off covaried with a marker of the lipoidal deposit volume, plasma FC. The ratios UQ and αT over FC (N-UQ and N-αT) are alternative means for clinical evaluation. Mean N-αT was relatively more depleted than N-UQ. On an individual basis this was more pronounced for those with low N-UQ than for those with high values.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Coenzyme Q10 ; Cardiomyopathy ; Bioenergetics ; Ejection fraction ; Cardiac output
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is indispensable in mitochondrial bioenergetics and for human life to exist. 88/115 patients completed a trial of therapy with CoQ10 for cardiomyopathy. Patients were selected on the basis of clinical criteria,X-rays, electrocardiograms, echocardiography, and coronary angiography. Responses were monitored by ejection fractions, cardiac output, and improvements in functional classifications (NYHA). Of the 88 patients 75%–85% showed statistically significant increases in two monitored cardiac parameters. Patients with the lowest ejection fractions (approx. 10%–30%) showed the highest increases (115Δ%–210Δ%) and those with higher ejection fractions (50%–80%) showed increases of approx. 10Δ%–25Δ% on therapy. By functional classification, 17/21 in class IV, 52/62 in class III, and 4/5 in class II improved to lower classes. Clinical responses appeared over variable times, and are presumably based on mechanisms of DNA-RNA-protein synthesis of apoenzymes which restore levels of CoQ10 enzymes in a deficiency state. 10/21 (48%) of patients in class IV, 26/62 (42%) in class III, and 2/5 (40%) in class II had exceptionally low control blood levels of CoQ10. Clinical responses on therapy with CoQ10 appear maximal with blood levels of approx. 2.5 µg CoQ10/ml and higher during therapy.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Vitamin Q ; Vitamin E ; Coenzyme Q ; Ubiquinone ; α-tocopherol ; Normalized plasma VQ and AT
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Ubiquinone (UQ) and α-tocopherol (AT) are two highly lipophilic antioxidants which can be dissolved only in lipid layers or attached to protein structures. Analyses of both UQ and AT in whole blood and plasma demonstrate identical values, which excludes any significant allocation to blood cells. The lipoidic plasma structures constitute the plasma lipoprotein fractions of high (HDL), low (LDL), and very low (VLDL) density in addition to chylomicrons. This means by definition that blood and plasma UQ and AT values are limited if not related to the lipoidic deposit volume. UQ and AT increase linearly with free cholesterol (FC). FC has therefore been suggested to be a good marker for the deposit volume. The ratios UQ and AT over FC - normalized UQ (N-UQ) and normalized AT (N-AT) - have been computed for inter-and intraindividual comparisons. With a plasma UQ content of 1 μg/ml (≈ 1 μmol/l) and a plasma volume of 41, UQ makes up about 15% of the total heart content or under 1% of UQ in skeletal muscle. The corresponding value for the total extracellular UQ content is less than 2%. This means that extracellular UQ has no or a very minor role as a UQ depot. The same is true for AT. However, for transportation and allocation determinations of N-UQ and N-AT are relevant. Assuming only a lipoprotein-related transportation, healthy persons have saturated plasma UQ and AT values in only 25% and 10% of the population, respectively. All patient categories studied have been found nonsaturated. VLDL plus LDL constitute some 90% of the UQ deposit volume. VLDL and LDL are released from the liver to transport fat, for example, to muscle tissue. HDL has a corresponding cholesterol-transporting function. Uptake depends on the local lipoprotein lipase activity. Do these transports also function as means for UQ and AT transport? Per unit of FC, UQ content in VLDL+LDL is about five times that in HDL. The corresponding AT value is about unity. This difference between UQ and AT storage does not exclude the possibility that VLDL+LDL particles possess the ability to transport UQ between different compartments when so necessary.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The long-term effect of ocular administration of a substance P (SP) antagonist, (D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9)-SP, was studied in the rabbit. After 2–3 months of topical administration of the antagonist twice daily, a mild trauma was applied in the form of infrared irradiation of the iris. The control eye responded with disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier, the eye treated with the antagonist did not. Two days after termination of treatment, the response to ocular injury was still reduced. Another 2 days later, ocular injury evoked a normal response, which shows that the protection was reversible. No adverse reaction to the SP antagonist was noted.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0003-9861
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0003-9861
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0003-9861
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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