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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: bioequivalence ; dose proportionality ; mixed effects model ; pharmacokinetics ; power model
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. The aim of this work was a pragmatic, statistically sound and clinically relevant approach to dose-proportionality analyses that is compatible with common study designs. Methods. Statistical estimation is used to derive a (1-α)% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of dose-normalized, geometric mean values (Rdnm) of a pharmacokinetic variable (PK). An acceptance interval for Rdnm defining the clinically relevant, dose-proportional region is established a priori. Proportionality is declared if the CI for Rdnm is completely contained within the critical region. The approach is illustrated with mixed-effects models based on a power function of the form PK = β0 • Doseβ1; however, the logic holds for other functional forms. Results. It was observed that the dose-proportional region delineated by a power model depends only on the dose ratio. Furthermore, a dose ratio (ρ1) can be calculated such that the CI lies entirely within the pre-specified critical region. A larger ratio (ρ2) may exist such that the CI lies completely outside that region. The approach supports inferences about the PK response that are not constrained to the exact dose levels studied. Conclusion. The proposed method enhances the information from a clinical dose-proportionality study and helps to standardize decision rules.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 31 (1978), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The turnover rate of tubulin in rat brain was determined from the decay in specific radioactivity of the protein after pulse-labeling. When precursors were administered by a parenteral route, the shortest half-life, 9.8 days, was obtained with [14C]NaHCO3; the longer half-lives obtained with [U-14C]glucose or [4,5-3H]leucine suggest significant reutilization of label. Furthermore, with leucine as precursor maximal specific radioactivity of tubulin was not obtained until eight days after administration of label. Labeling and decay kinetics obtained with [4,5-3H]leucine were markedly different when the isotope was administered directly into the lateral ventricle. The difference between the turnover rates of the -α and β subunits of tubulin purified by means of high resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was not statistically significant. A half-life for tubulin of 6.2 days was measured by continuous intravenous infusion of [U-14C]tyrosine.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 32 (1979), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract— Evidence for multiple forms of the α and β subunits of tubulin isolated from rat brain has been obtained by means of SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and SDS hydroxylapatite column chromatography. Fourteen distinct bands, localized near pH 5.4, were formed when tubulin was subjected to isoelectric focusing in a gradient established with a very narrow range ampholyte mixture. Three tubulin subunits, a1., α2, and β, were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in a second dimension. The β subunit was more acidic than the α subunits. Brain sections were incubated in tissue culture medium containing 32P1 and radiolabeled tubulin was subsequently isolated and subjected to electrophoresis. Only the β subunit was labeled. All radioactivity was associated with two or three adjacent bands on isoelectric focusing gels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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