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  • 1
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Granule cells are the most numerous neurons in the cochlear nucleus, but, because of their small size, little information on their membrane properties and ionic currents is available. We used an in vitro slice preparation of the rat ventral cochlear nucleus to make whole-cell recordings from these cells. Under current clamp, some granule neurons fired spontaneous action potentials and all generated a train of action potentials on depolarization (threshold current, 10–35 pA). Hyperpolarization increased the latency to the first action potential evoked during a subsequent depolarization. We examined which voltage-gated currents might underlie this latency shift. In addition to a fast inward Na+ current, depolarization activated two outward potassium currents. A transient current was rapidly inactivated by membrane potentials positive to -60 mV, while a second, more slowly inactivating current was observed following the decay of the transient current. No hyperpolarization-activated conductances were observed in these cells. Modelling of the currents suggests that removal of inactivation on hyperpolarization accounts for the increased action potential latency in granule cells. Such a mechanism could account for the ‘pauser’-type firing patterns of the fusiform cells which receive a prominent projection from the granule cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Principal neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) receive a synaptic input from a single giant calyx terminal that generates a fast-rising, large excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC), each of which are supra-threshold for postsynaptic action potential generation. Here, we present evidence that MNTB principal neurons receive multiple excitatory synaptic inputs generating slow-rising, small EPSCs that are also capable of triggering postsynaptic action potentials but are of non-calyceal origin. Both calyceal and non-calyceal EPSCs are mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation; however, the NMDA receptor-mediated response is proportionally larger at the non-calyceal synapses. Non-calyceal synapses generate action potentials in MNTB principal neurons with a longer latency and a lower reliability than the large calyceal input. They constitute an alternative low fidelity synaptic input to the fast and secure relay transmission via the calyx of Held synapse.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 450 (2007), S. 43-44 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] From a physiological perspective, a developing organ requires a programme that allows it to grow and adapt to internal and environmental constraints. In sensory systems such as those involved in sight and hearing, the adaptable growth of afferent (incoming) nerve fibres is involved in connecting ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Principal neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO) detect interaural intensity differences by integration of excitatory projections from ipsilateral bushy cells and inhibitory inputs from the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. The intrinsic membrane currents active around firing threshold will form an important component of this binaural computation. Whole cell patch recording in an in vitro brain slice preparation was employed to study conductances regulating action potential (AP) firing in principal neurons. Current-clamp recordings from different neurons showed two types of firing pattern on depolarization, one group fired only a single initial AP and had low input resistance while the second group fired multiple APs and had a high input resistance. Under voltage-clamp, single-spiking neurons showed significantly higher levels of a dendrotoxin-sensitive, low threshold potassium current (ILT). Block of ILT by dendrotoxin-I allowed single-spiking cells to fire multiple APs and indicated that this current was mediated by Kv1 channels. Both neuronal types were morphologically similar and possessed similar amounts of the hyperpolarization-activated nonspecific cation conductance (Ih). However, single-spiking cells predominated in the lateral limb of the LSO (receiving low frequency sound inputs) while multiple-firing cells dominated the medial limb. This functional gradient was mirrored by a medio-lateral distribution of Kv1.1 immunolabelling. We conclude that Kv1 channels underlie the gradient of LSO principal neuron firing properties. The properties of single-spiking neurons would render them particularly suited to preserving timing information.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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