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  • 1
    Keywords: CELL ; CLINICAL-TRIAL ; RADIATION-THERAPY ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS ; OUTCOMES ; reirradiation ; BRONCHOGENIC-CARCINOMA ; PHASE-II TRIAL ; PROTON-BEAM THERAPY ; ACCELERATED RADIOTHERAPY ; SALVAGE ; Post-pneumonectomy ; DATA METAANALYSIS
    Abstract: Background: Treatment options are very limited for patients with lung cancer who experience contralateral central or mediastinal relapse following pneumonectomy. We present results of an accelerated salvage chemoradiotherapy regimen. Methods: Patients with localized contralateral central intrapulmonary or mediastinal relapse after pneumonectomy were offered combined chemoradiotherapy including concurrent weekly cisplatin (25 mg/m2) and accelerated radiotherapy [accelerated fractionated (AF), 60 Gy, 8x2 Gy per week] to reduce time for repopulation. Based on 4D-CT-planning, patients were irradiated using multifield intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or helical tomotherapy. Results: Between 10/2011 and 12/2012, seven patients were treated. Initial stages were IIB/IIIA/IIIB: 3/1/3; histopathological subtypes scc/adeno/large cell: 4/1/2. Tumour relapses were located in mediastinal nodal stations in five patients with endobronchial tumour in three patients. The remaining patients had contralateral central tumour relapses. All patients received 60 Gy (AF), six patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Median dose to the remaining contralateral lung, esophagus, and spinal cord was 6.8 (3.3-11.4), 8.0 (5.1-15.5), and 7.6 (2.8-31.2) Gy, respectively. With a median follow-up of 29 [17-32] months, no esophageal or pulmonary toxicity exceeding grade 2 [Common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTC-AE) v. 3] was observed. Median survival was 17.2 months, local in-field control at 12 months 80%. Only two local recurrences were observed, both in combination with out-field metastases. Conclusions: This intensified accelerated chemoradiotherapy schedule was safely applicable and offers a curative chance in these pretreated frail lung cancer patients.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25922702
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  • 2
    Keywords: GROWTH ; CELL LUNG-CANCER ; PATHWAYS ; MUTATIONS ; sensitivity ; FUTURE ; THERAPIES
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Multiple investigational drugs are currently explored in cancer patient populations defined by specific biomarkers. This demands a new process of patient selection for clinical trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Starting January 1, 2012, preemptive biomarker profiling was offered at the West German Cancer Center to all patients with advanced non-small-cell lung (NSCLC) or colorectal cancer (CRC), who met generic study inclusion criteria. Tumour specimens were subjected to prespecified profiling algorithms to detect 'actionable biomarkers' by amplicon sequencing, in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry. The clinical course was closely monitored to offer trial participation whenever applicable. RESULTS: Within 12 months, 267 patients (188 NSCLC, 79 CRC) were profiled. Estimated additional cost for biomarker profiling was 219615.51 EUR excluding histopathology workup and administration. The most prevalent biomarkers in pulmonary adenocarcinoma were KRAS mutations (29%), loss of PTEN expression (18%), EGFR mutations (9%), HER2 amplification (5%) and BRAF mutations (3%), while the prevalence of ALK translocations and PIK3CA mutations was extremely low. In pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma FGFR1 amplifications were found in 15%, PTEN expression was lost in 20% and DDR2 was mutated in a single case. KRAS mutations (41%) predominated in CRC, followed by loss of PTEN expression (16%), PIK3CA (5%) and BRAF (5%) mutations. So far 13 patients (5%) have entered biomarker-stratified clinical trials. Therapeutic decisions for approved drugs were guided in another 45 patients (17%). CONCLUSION: Preemptive biomarker profiling can be implemented into the diagnostic algorithm of a large Comprehensive Cancer Center. Substantial investments in diagnostics and administration are required.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23876834
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  • 3
    Keywords: radiotherapy ; THERAPY ; SURGERY ; PREOPERATIVE CHEMOTHERAPY ; chemoradiation ; PHASE-II TRIAL ; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL ; surgical resection ; CHEMORADIOTHERAPY ; PATHOLOGICAL COMPLETE RESPONSE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Outcome of consecutive patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer and histopathologically proven mediastional lymph node metastases treated with induction chemotherapy, neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and thoracotomy at the West German Cancer Center between 08/2000 and 06/2012 was analysed. A clinico-pathological prognostic model for survival was built including partial or complete response according to computed tomography imaging (CT) as clinical parameters as well as pathologic complete remission (pCR) and mediastinal nodal clearance (MNC) as histopathologic factors. METHODS: Proportional hazard analysis (PHA) and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) were used to identify prognostic factors for survival. Long-term survival was defined as survival 〉/= 36 months. RESULTS: A total of 157 patients were treated, median follow-up was 97 months. Among these patients, pCR and MNC were observed in 41 and 85 patients, respectively. Overall survival was 56 +/- 4% and 36 +/- 4% at 24 and 60 months, respectively. Sensitivities of pCR and MNC to detect long-term survivors were 38% and 61%, specificities were 84% and 52%, respectively. Multivariable survival analysis revealed pCR, cN3 category, and gender, as prognostic factors at a level of alpha 〈 0.05. Considering only preoperative available parameters, CT response became significant. Classifying patients with a predicted hazard above the median as high risk group and the remaining as low risk patients yielded better separation of the survival curves by the inclusion of histopathologic factors than by preoperative factors alone (p 〈 0.0001, log rank test). Using RPA, pCR was identified as the top prognostic factor above clinical factors (p = 0.0006). No long term survivors were observed in patients with cT3-4 cN3 tumors without pCR. CONCLUSIONS: pCR is the dominant histopathologic response parameter and improves prognostic classifiers, based on clinical parameters. The validated prognostic model can be used to estimate individual prognosis and forms a basis for patient selection for treatment intensification.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25943191
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  • 4
    Keywords: GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR ; BREAST-CANCER ; PROGRESSION ; PROGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE ; EGFR ; GEFITINIB ; METASTATIC COLORECTAL-CANCER ; erlotinib ; RESISTANT PROSTATE-CANCER ; RARE MUTATIONS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Oncogenic mutations are powerful predictive biomarkers for molecularly targeted cancer therapies. For mutation detection patients have to undergo invasive tumor biopsies. Alternatively, archival samples are used which may no longer reflect the actual tumor status. Circulating tumor cells (CTC) could serve as an alternative platform to detect somatic mutations in cancer patients. We sought to develop a sensitive and specific assay to detect mutations in the EGFR gene in CTC from lung cancer patients. METHODS: We developed a novel assay based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and melting curve analysis to detect activating EGFR mutations in blood cell fractions enriched in CTC. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was chosen as disease model with reportedly very low CTC counts. The assay was prospectively validated in samples from patients with EGFR-mutant and EGFR-wild type NSCLC treated within a randomized clinical trial. Sequential analyses were conducted to monitor CTC signals during therapy and correlate mutation detection in CTC with treatment outcome. RESULTS: Assay sensitivity was optimized to enable detection of a single EGFR-mutant CTC/mL peripheral blood. CTC were detected in pretreatment blood samples from all 8 EGFR-mutant lung cancer patients studied. Loss of EGFR-mutant CTC signals correlated with treatment response, and its reoccurrence preceded relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Despite low abundance of CTC in NSCLC oncogenic mutations can be reproducibly detected by applying an unbiased CTC enrichment strategy and highly sensitive PCR and melting curve analysis. This strategy may enable non-invasive, specific biomarker diagnostics and monitoring in patients undergoing targeted cancer therapies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24465542
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Bifurcated airway stent ; Stent placement ; Bronchoscopy ; Tracheobronchial stenosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We developed a new insertion technique and designed a forceps device for the placement of bifurcated airway stents; 131 of 142 endoscopically placed tracheobronchial Y-stents were inserted with a forceps and a laryngoscope. For the last 52 stent implantations we used the new stent forceps. It was determined to be a simple and safe method without major complications. In 11 cases alternative techniques had to be used. Technique and device are described in detail.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Over the past decade genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been applied to aid in the understanding of the biology of traits. The success of this approach is governed by the underlying effect sizes carried by the true risk variants and the corresponding statistical power to observe such effects given the study design and sample size under investigation. Previous ASD GWAS have identified genome-wide significant (GWS) risk loci; however, these studies were of only of low statistical power to identify GWS loci at the lower effect sizes (odds ratio (OR) 〈1.15). METHODS: We conducted a large-scale coordinated international collaboration to combine independent genotyping data to improve the statistical power and aid in robust discovery of GWS loci. This study uses genome-wide genotyping data from a discovery sample (7387 ASD cases and 8567 controls) followed by meta-analysis of summary statistics from two replication sets (7783 ASD cases and 11359 controls; and 1369 ASD cases and 137308 controls). RESULTS: We observe a GWS locus at 10q24.32 that overlaps several genes including PITX3, which encodes a transcription factor identified as playing a role in neuronal differentiation and CUEDC2 previously reported to be associated with social skills in an independent population cohort. We also observe overlap with regions previously implicated in schizophrenia which was further supported by a strong genetic correlation between these disorders (Rg = 0.23; P = 9 x 10-6). We further combined these Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) ASD GWAS data with the recent PGC schizophrenia GWAS to identify additional regions which may be important in a common neurodevelopmental phenotype and identified 12 novel GWS loci. These include loci previously implicated in ASD such as FOXP1 at 3p13, ATP2B2 at 3p25.3, and a 'neurodevelopmental hub' on chromosome 8p11.23. CONCLUSIONS: This study is an important step in the ongoing endeavour to identify the loci which underpin the common variant signal in ASD. In addition to novel GWS loci, we have identified a significant genetic correlation with schizophrenia and association of ASD with several neurodevelopmental-related genes such as EXT1, ASTN2, MACROD2, and HDAC4.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28540026
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