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  • 1
    Keywords: Germany ; MODEL ; CT ; segmentation ; ACCURACY ; RESOLUTION ; kidney ; pig ; MR ; MRI ; NUMBER ; arteries ; HEAD ; COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY ; MAGNETIC-RESONANCE ANGIOGRAPHY ; MR-ANGIOGRAPHY ; DIGITAL SUBTRACTION ANGIOGRAPHY ; ANGIOGRAPHY ; MR angiography ; LEVEL ; PHASE ; SIZE ; branching ; SPECIMENS ; CATHETER ; high-field MRI ; WILMS-TUMOR
    Abstract: Background: MRI at 3.0 T enables high-spatial resolution for renal MR angiography. Objective: Evaluation of an arterial tree model in animal kidney specimens with comparison of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and high-field MRI to find out the maximum spatial resolution of intrarenal vessels. It was considered that objective quantitation of angiogram quality could be achieved. Materials and methods: A total of 27 pig kidney specimens were examined by MR angiography (flash 3D) using a 3.0-T scanner (TRIO; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with an eight-channel head coil and a voxel size of 0.9x0.9x1.1 mm in the early arterial phase after implantation of a 4F catheter in the renal artery. DSA (Integris, Philips, Best, The Netherlands) was performed immediately after the MRI. With the help of semiautomated segmentation, all vessels were marked for comparison of the vessel trees. The Wilcoxon rank test was used for statistical evaluation of vessel numbers and branching depths. Results: Objective comparison between DSA and MR angiography was achieved. High-field MR angiography had the ability to depict vessels up to the seventh branching on average. Significant differences in vessel delineation and counts were found from the fifth level of intrarenal branching onwards with DSA showing an advantage. Conclusion: High-field MRI has great potential in the detection of intrarenal arteries and is comparable to DSA in visualization of the central intrarenal vessel tree
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16896692
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The rising incidence of renal cell carcinoma, its more frequent early detection (stage T1a) and the increasing prevalence of chronic renal failure with higher morbidity and shorter life expectancy underscore the need for multimodal focal nephron-sparing therapy. DISCUSSION: During the past decade, the gold standard shifted from radical to partial nephrectomy. Depending on the surgeon's experience, the patient's constitution and the tumor's location, the intervention can be performed laparoscopically with the corresponding advantages of lower invasiveness. A treatment alternative can be advantageous for selected patients with high morbidity and/or an increased risk of complications associated with anesthesia or surgery. Corresponding risk stratification necessitates previous confirmation of the small renal mass (cT1a) by histological examination of biopsy samples. Active surveillance represents a controlled delay in the initiation of treatment. RESULTS: Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and laparoscopic cryoablation are currently the most common treatment alternatives, although there are limitations particularly for renal tumors located centrally near the hilum. More recent ablation procedures such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), irreversible electroporation, microwave ablation, percutaneous stereotactic ablative radiotherapy and high-dose brachytherapy have high potential in some cases but are currently regarded as experimental for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27119957
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: C-banding pattern ; Nucleolar activity ; Dasypyrum villosum ; Wheat ‘Chinese Spring’ ; D. villosum addition lines ; Triticum dicoccum-D. villosum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary C-banding patterns and nucleolar activity were analyzed in Dasypyrum villosum, its added chromosomes to hexaploid wheat and the hexaploid amphiploid Triticum dicoccum-D. villosum. Two different populations of the allogamous species D. villosum (2n= 14, VV) from Greece and Italy were analyzed showing a similar polymorphism for C-banding pattern. Six of the seven addition lines were identified by their characteristic C-banding pattern. No polymorphism between both members of each added alien chromosome was found. Furthermore, nucleolar activity and competition were studied by using silver staining procedure. In D. villosum only one chromosome pair, A, was found to be responsible for organizing nucleoli. The results obtained in the amphiploid and in the addition lines demonstrate that nucleolar activity is restricted to SAT-chromosomes 1B and 6B of wheat, while those of D. villosum remain inactive.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Wheat-rye translocations ; Durum wheat ; C-banding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The present study describes a cytological stable alien chromosome translocation in tetraploid durum wheat. By crossing the hexaploid 1BL/1RS wheat-rye translocation line “Veery” to the tetraploid durum wheat cultivar “Cando” it was possible to select a 28 chromosomic strain homozygous for the 1BL/1RS translocation. The disease resistance potential of the short arm of rye chromosome 1R, which has been widely introduced in many hexaploid bread wheat cultivars could be now also used for the improvement of durum wheat.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Wheat/rye substitution lines ; C-banding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A complete set of isogenic wheat/rye D-genome substitutions were produced by crossing an inbred line of spring rye Secale cereale L. cv. “Prolific” to a tetraploid wheat, the A-and B-genomes of which had previously been extracted from hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum L. em Thell. cv. “Thatcher”. After chromosome doubling, the derived hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) was backcrossed to 6x “Thatcher” and selection for wheat/rye substitution lines was carried out in BCF3 to BCF6 families by using Giemsa C-banding. Five fertile disomic wheat/rye D-genome substitution lines were obtained and their chromosomal constitution was determined to be 1D/1R, 2D/2R, 7D/4R, 6D/6R, 7D/7R. The two remaining 3R and 5R substitutions are at the moment in a monosomic condition. Another 1D/7R substitution was detected but this plant was very weak and sterile, indicating that only substitutions between homoeologous chromosomes result in fertile, vigorous plants. Furthermore, many rye telocentrics as well as rye-rye and rye-wheat translocations were selected. Since all lines selected in this program share the same genetic background of “Thatcher” wheat, genetic heterogeneity is excluded. The material is very useful, therefore, for analyzing the effects of different rye chromosomes or chromosome segments in an otherwise homozygous background.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Amphiploid ; Triticum durum ; Alien additions ; Aneuploidy ; C-banding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A set of four normal chromosomes (1D, 2D, 3D, and 6D), and three translocation chromosomes (4DS·5DS, 5DL·7DS, and 7DL·4DL) involving all 14 chromosome arms of the D-genome were obtained as monosomic additions from Aegilops squarrosa (genome D, n=7) in Triticum durum Desf. cv ‘PBW114’ (genome AB, n=14). The cyclical translocation occurred during the synthesis of the amphiploid probably as a result of misdivision and reunion of the univalents during meiosis of the F1 hybrid T. durum x A. Squarrosa. The amphiploid was backcrossed twice with the durum parent to obtain monosomic addition lines. The monosomic addition chromosomes were identified by C-banding and associated phenotypic traits. All monosomic addition lines were fertile. The development of disomic and ditelosomic addition lines is underway, which will be useful for cytogenetic analysis of individual D-genome chromosomes in the background of T. Durum.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Hessian fly resistance ; Insect antibiosis ; Wheat-rye hybrids ; C banding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A new Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) resistance gene derived from ‘Balbo’ rye and its transfer to hexaploid wheat via radiation-induced terminal and intercalary chromosomal translocations are described. Crosses between resistant ‘Balbo’ rye and susceptible ‘Suwon 92’ wheat and between the F1 amphidiploids and susceptible ‘TAM 106’ and ‘Amigo’ wheats produced resistant BC2F3 lines that were identified by C-banding analysis as being 6RL telocentric addition lines. Comparative chromosomal analyses and resistance tests revealed that the resistance gene is located on the 6RL telocentric chromosome. X-irradiated pollen of 6RL addition plants was used to fertilize plants of susceptible wheats ‘TAM 106,’ ‘TAM 101,’ and ‘Vona.’ After several generations of selection for resistance, new sublines were obtained that were homogeneous for resistance. Thirteen of these lines were analyzed by C-banding, and three different wheat-6RL chromosomal translocations (T) were identified. Wheat chromosomes involved in the translocations were 6B, 4B, and 4A. Almost the complete 6RL arm is present in T6BS · 6BL-6RL. Only the distal half of 6RL is present in T4BS · 4BL-6RL, which locates the resistance gene in the distal half of 6RL. Only a very small segment (ca 1.0 μm) of the distal region of 6RL is present in an intercalary translocation (Ti) Ti4AS · 4AL-6RL-4AL. The 6RL segment is inserted in the intercalary region between the centromere of chromosome 4A and the large proximal C-band of 4AL. The break-points of the translocations are outside the region of the centromere, indicating that they were induced by the X-ray treatment. All three translocations are cytologically stable and can be used directly in wheat breeding programs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: C-banding ; Genomic in situ hybridization ; Triticum aestivum ; T. umbellulatum ; Chromosome addition and translocation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A standard karyotype and a generalized idiogram of Triticum umbellulatum (syn. Aegilops umbellulata, 2n = 2x = 14) was established based on C-banding analysis of ten accessions of different geographic origin and individual T. umbellulatum chromosomes in T. aestivum — T. umbellulatum chromosome addition lines. Monosomic (MA) and disomic (DA) T. aestivum — T. umbellulatum chromosome addition lines (DA1U = B, DA2U = D, MA4U = F, DA5U = C, DA6U = A, DA7U = E = G) and telosomic addition lines (DA1US, DA1UL, DA2US, DA2UL, DA4UL, MA5US, (+ iso 5US), DA5UL, DA7US, DA7UL) were analyzed. Line H was established as a disomic addition line for the translocated wheat — T. umbellulatum chromosome T2DS·4US. Radiation-induced wheat — T. umbellulatum translocation lines resistant to leaf rust (Lr9) were identified as T40 = T6BL·6BS-6UL, T41 = T4BL·4BS-6UL, T44 = T2DS·2DL-6UL, T47 = ‘Transfer’ = T6BS·6BL-6UL and T52 = T7BL·7BS-6UL. Breakpoints and sizes of the transferred T. umbellulatum segments in these translocations were determined by in situ hybridization analysis using total genomic T. umbellulatum DNA as a probe
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Fluorescence in situ hybridization ; Translocation ; WSMV resistance ; Thinopyrum intermedium ; Triticum aestivum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract   Thinopyrum intermedium is a promising source of resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), a devastating disease of wheat. Three wheat germplasm lines possessing resistance to WSMV, derived from Triticum aestivum×Th. intermedium crosses, are analyzed by C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) to determine the amount and location of alien chromatin in the transfer lines. Line CI15092 was confirmed as a disomic substitution line in which wheat chromosome 4A was replaced by Th. intermedium chromosome 4Ai?2. The other two lines, CI17766 and A29-13-3, carry an identical Robertsonian translocation chromosome in which the complete short arm of chromosome 4Ai?2 was transferred to the long arm of wheat chromosome 4A. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using ABD genomic DNA from wheat as a probe and S genomic DNA from Pseudoroegneria stipifolia as the blocker, and vice versa, revealed that the entire short arm of the translocation was derived from the short arm of chromosome 4Ai?2 and the breakpoint was located at the centromere. Chromosomal arm ratios (L/S) of 2.12 in CI17766 and 2.15 in A29-13-3 showed that the translocated chromosome is submetacentric. This translocated chromosome is designated as T4AL ⋅ 4Ai?2S as suggested by Friebe et al. (1991).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words  Triticum aestivum ; Genetic transformation ; Thaumatin-like protein ; Wheat scab ; Fluorescent in situ hybridization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract   The possibility of controlling wheat scab (caused by Fusarium graminearum Schw.) was explored by engineering wheat plants for constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes. A rice thaumatin-like protein (TLP) gene (tlp) and a rice chitinase gene (chi11) were introduced into the spring wheat cultivar ’Bobwhite’ by co-transformation of the plasmids pGL2ubi-tlp (ubiquitin/tlp//CaMV 35S/hpt) and pAHG11 (CaMV 35S/chi11//ubiquitin/bar). The transformation was by biolistic bombardment. Bialaphos was used as the selection reagent. The integration and expression of the tlp, bar, chi11 and hpt genes were analyzed by Southern, Northern and Western blot analyses. The four transgenes co-segregated in the T1 progeny of the transgenic plant and were localized at the telomeric region of the chromosome 6A long arm by sequential N-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using pAHG11 or pGL2ubi-tlp as the probes. Only the transgenes tlp and bar, under the control of the ubiquitin promoter-intron, were expressed. No expression of the chi11 and hpt genes, controlled by the CaMV 35S promoter, was detected in T1 plants. After inoculation with conidia of F. graminearum, the symptoms of scab developed significantly slower in transgenic plants of the T1, T2 and T3 generations expressing the tlp gene than in non-transformed control plants. This is the first report of enhanced resistance to F. graminearum in transgenic wheat plants with constitutive expression of TLP.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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