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  • 1
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; METAANALYSIS ; P-VALUES ; HAPLOTYPE BLOCKS ; SCAN ; pathway analysis ; INDIVIDUAL PARTICIPANT DATA
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Gene-set analysis (GSA) methods are used as complementary approaches to genome-wide association studies (GWASs). The single marker association estimates of a predefined set of genes are either contrasted with those of all remaining genes or with a null non-associated background. To pool the p-values from several GSAs, it is important to take into account the concordance of the observed patterns resulting from single marker association point estimates across any given gene set. Here we propose an enhanced version of Fisher's inverse chi2-method META-GSA, however weighting each study to account for imperfect correlation between association patterns. SIMULATION AND POWER: We investigated the performance of META-GSA by simulating GWASs with 500 cases and 500 controls at 100 diallelic markers in 20 different scenarios, simulating different relative risks between 1 and 1.5 in gene sets of 10 genes. Wilcoxon's rank sum test was applied as GSA for each study. We found that META-GSA has greater power to discover truly associated gene sets than simple pooling of the p-values, by e.g. 59% versus 37%, when the true relative risk for 5 of 10 genes was assume to be 1.5. Under the null hypothesis of no difference in the true association pattern between the gene set of interest and the set of remaining genes, the results of both approaches are almost uncorrelated. We recommend not relying on p-values alone when combining the results of independent GSAs. APPLICATION: We applied META-GSA to pool the results of four case-control GWASs of lung cancer risk (Central European Study and Toronto/Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute Study; German Lung Cancer Study and MD Anderson Cancer Center Study), which had already been analyzed separately with four different GSA methods (EASE; SLAT, mSUMSTAT and GenGen). This application revealed the pathway GO0015291 "transmembrane transporter activity" as significantly enriched with associated genes (GSA-method: EASE, p = 0.0315 corrected for multiple testing). Similar results were found for GO0015464 "acetylcholine receptor activity" but only when not corrected for multiple testing (all GSA-methods applied; p approximately 0.02).
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26501144
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  • 2
    Abstract: The analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) benefits from the investigation of biologically meaningful gene sets, such as gene-interaction networks (pathways). We propose an extension to a successful kernel-based pathway analysis approach by integrating kernel functions into a powerful algorithmic framework for variable selection, to enable investigation of multiple pathways simultaneously. We employ genetic similarity kernels from the logistic kernel machine test (LKMT) as base-learners in a boosting algorithm. A model to explain case-control status is created iteratively by selecting pathways that improve its prediction ability. We evaluated our method in simulation studies adopting 50 pathways for different sample sizes and genetic effect strengths. Additionally, we included an exemplary application of kernel boosting to a rheumatoid arthritis and a lung cancer dataset. Simulations indicate that kernel boosting outperforms the LKMT in certain genetic scenarios. Applications to GWAS data on rheumatoid arthritis and lung cancer resulted in sparse models which were based on pathways interpretable in a clinical sense. Kernel boosting is highly flexible in terms of considered variables and overcomes the problem of multiple testing. Additionally, it enables the prediction of clinical outcomes. Thus, kernel boosting constitutes a new, powerful tool in the analysis of GWAS data and towards the understanding of biological processes involved in disease susceptibility.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28785300
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford [u.a.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 55 (1999), S. 1625-1627 
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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