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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; IN-VIVO ; ACTIVATION ; cytoskeleton ; INVOLVEMENT ; VEGF ; INTEGRINS ; STABILIZATION ; VASCULAR MORPHOGENESIS ; ALPHA-3-BETA-1-INTEGRIN
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is crucial for many pathological processes and becomes a therapeutic strategy against diseases ranging from inflammation to cancer. The regulatory mechanism of angiogenesis remains unclear. Although tetraspanin CD82 is widely expressed in various endothelial cells (ECs), its vascular function is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Angiogenesis was examined in Cd82-null mice with in vivo and ex vivo morphogenesis assays. Cellular functions, molecular interactions, and signaling were analyzed in Cd82-null ECs. Angiogenic responses to various stimuli became markedly increased upon Cd82 ablation. Major changes in Cd82-null ECs were enhanced migration and invasion, likely resulting from the upregulated expression of cell adhesion molecules such as CD44 and integrins at the cell surface and subsequently elevated outside-in signaling. Gangliosides, lipid raft clustering, and CD44-membrane microdomain interactions were increased in the plasma membrane of Cd82-null ECs, leading to less clathrin-independent endocytosis and then more surface presence of CD44. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals that CD82 restrains pathological angiogenesis by inhibiting EC movement, that lipid raft clustering and cell adhesion molecule trafficking modulate angiogenic potential, that transmembrane protein modulates lipid rafts, and that the perturbation of CD82-ganglioside-CD44 signaling attenuates pathological angiogenesis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25149363
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-02-09
    Description: Calcineurin modulates environmental stress survival and virulence of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans . Previously, we identified 44 putative calcineurin substrates, and proposed that the calcineurin pathway is branched to regulate targets including Crz1, Pbp1, and Puf4 in C. neoformans . In this study, we characterized Had1, which is one of the putative calcineurin substrates belonging to the ubiquitously conserved haloacid dehalogenase β-phosphoglucomutase protein superfamily. Growth of the had1 mutant was found to be compromised at 38° or higher. In addition, the had1 mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to cell wall perturbing agents, including Congo Red and Calcofluor White, and to an endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer dithiothreitol. Virulence studies revealed that the had1 mutation results in attenuated virulence compared to the wild-type strain in a murine inhalation infection model. Genetic epistasis analysis revealed that Had1 and the zinc finger transcription factor Crz1 play roles in parallel pathways that orchestrate stress survival and fungal virulence. Overall, our results demonstrate that Had1 is a key regulator of thermotolerance, cell wall integrity, and virulence of C. neoformans .
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Jinchuan yak, a newly discovered yak breed, not only possesses a large proportion of multi-ribs but also exhibits many good characteristics, such as high meat production, milk yield, and reproductive performance. However, there is limited information about its overall genetic structure, relationship with yaks in other areas, and possible origins and evolutionary processes. In this study, 7,693,689 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified by resequencing the genome of Jinchuan yak. Principal component and population genetic structure analyses showed that Jinchuan yak could be distinguished as an independent population among the domestic yak population. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that the decay rate of Jinchuan yak was the lowest of the domestic yak breeds, indicating that the degree of domestication and selection intensity of Jinchuan yak were higher than those of other yak breeds. Combined with archaeological data, we speculated that the origin of domestication of Jinchuan yak was ~6000 yr ago (4000–10,000 yr ago). The quantitative dynamics of population growth history in Jinchuan yak was similar to that of other breeds of domestic and wild yaks, but was closer to that of the wild yak. No significant gene exchange between Jinchuan and other domestic yaks occurred. Compared with other domestic yaks, Jinchuan yak possessed 339 significantly and positively selected genes, several of which relate to physiological rhythm, histones, and the breed’s excellent production characteristics. Our results provide a basis for the discovery of the evolution, molecular origin, and unique traits of Jinchuan yak.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-01-30
    Description: The Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin orchestrates sexual reproduction, stress responses, and virulence via branched downstream pathways in the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans . The calcineurin-binding protein Cbp1, the calcineurin temperature suppressor Cts1, the calcineurin-responsive zinc finger transcription factor Crz1, and the calcineurin targets Pbp1, Tif3, and Puf4, all function downstream of calcineurin to orchestrate distinct cellular processes. To elucidate how the calcineurin pathway regulatory network governs unisexual reproduction, stress responses, and virulence, we have analyzed the self-filamentous C. deneoformans strain, XL280α, and generated double mutants of these calcineurin downstream genes. We demonstrated that calcineurin governs unisexual reproduction at different sexual developmental stages, in which the initiation of the yeast–hyphal morphological transition is independent of Crz1, whereas the sporulation process is dependent on Crz1. Calcineurin-dependent unisexual reproduction is independent of the pheromone response pathway. Crz1 synergistically interacts with different calcineurin downstream targets in responding to ER, high-calcium, and cell wall stresses. We observed a widespread synergy suggesting that these proteins function in complex branched pathways downstream of calcineurin with some functional redundancy, which may allow efficient signaling network rewiring within the pathway for prompt adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we showed that deletion of PBP1 or TIF3 in the cna1 mutant background conferred a modest level of growth tolerance at 37°, but that the cna1 pbp1 and cna1 tif3 double mutants were both avirulent, suggesting that calcineurin may control virulence via mechanisms beyond thermotolerance.
    Print ISSN: 0016-6731
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Zeolite membrane PLOT columns ; In-situ synthesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The preparation of a zeolite membrane PLOT column by in-situ synthesis is described. The advantages of this new column are discussed. Some analytical applications to alkanes, arenes, esters, alkyl halides and ethers on the zeolite membrane PLOT column compared with those on a coated zeolite PLOT column are reported.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to determine the potential for cross-transmission ofCandida spp. between health-care workers and patients, the survival of clinical isolates of five species ofCandida on the palms of human volunteers was tested. One hundred µl of a McFarland 1.0 density suspension (5×105 cfu) from an overnight culture ofCandida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis andCandida glabrata was used as inoculum. The degree of hydrophobicity of the differentCandida species was also tested and did not influence the survival. The half-lives were brief, being 9.5, 12.4, 7.4, 12.8, 9.6 min forCandida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, andCandida tropicalis, respectively, but at 45 min 2.6 × 103 to 3 × 104 organisms remained on the hands. Survival ofCandida albicans for as long as 24 h on inanimate surfaces was observed. Transmission from one hand to a second hand occurred in 69 % of the experiments and from the first to a third hand in 38 %. Transmission to and from inanimate surfaces was successful in most of the experiments (90 %). This experimental model aids in the biological study ofCandida spp. and suggests some of the potential mechanisms of transmission.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 81 (1997), S. 2135-2142 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: First-principles atomic cluster calculations have been carried out in the local density approximation to understand the segregation behavior and strengthening effects of boron in Ni3Al. The binding energy of boron is calculated in lattice fragment clusters representing the perfect crystal, as well as various defect sites. The agreement between trends in energetics determined for small clusters and periodic supercells indicates the dominant role of boron's interaction with nearest-neighbors of the host. The stereochemical factor underlying boron's preferential bonding to nickel atoms in four-fold planar coordination (i.e., sp3 hybridization) suggests a mechanism for the boron-effect in Ni3Al: increased cohesion provides a driving force for B segregation to open sites, such as at Ni-enriched grain boundary sites, and the strengthening is a result of strong localized Ni–B covalent bond formation. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A multistep postannealing scheme has been developed for preparing nearly single phased, c-axis oriented TlBa2Ca2Cu3Ox (Tl-1223) superconducting thin films fabricated by the direct-current-sputtering process. Films obtained by the present process have shown, for the first time in this system, a critical current density (Jc) above 106 A/cm2 at 77 K with a zero-resistance transition temperature Tc0≈110 K. The order of magnitude enhancement in Jc is attributed to the improvement of film morphology which, in turn, removed most of the weak links encountered previously. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The transport scattering and single-particle relaxation times which characterize a two-dimensional electron system have been investigated by using thermal neutron irradiation. The ratios of transport scattering time to single-particle relaxation time are observed to vary from 1.7 to 7.8 depending on the electron density. A decrease in single-particle relaxation time is found while the transport scattering time increases as the electron concentrations increase. These phenomena are relevant to the Hall plateau broadening and enhancement of Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations in such an experiment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Results of resistivity and Hall effect measurements in La1−xCaxCoO3 (0.1≤x≤0.5) epitaxial films and ceramics are presented. The spontaneous Hall effect in La1−xCaxCoO3 (LCCO) is observed for ferromagnetic samples with x≥0.2. The Hall effect is largest near the magnetic percolation threshold x=0.2. For x=0.2, the low-field slope of the Hall resistivity, ρxy/(μ0H), attains a large value of 2×10−6 m3/C below the Curie temperature Tc, which may be applied to sensitive low-field detection. Except near the magnetic percolation threshold, the longitudinal resistivity of LCCO decreases with increasing field at all temperatures. Anomalous temperature-dependent magnetoresistance occurs in the sample with x=0.2, which may be associated with the spin-state transition in LCCO. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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