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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: autoregulation ; cell-cycle engineering ; eukaryotic operon ; IRES ; multigene engineering ; picornavirus ; pTRIDENT ; regulated expression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Contemporary basic research is rapidly revealing increasingly complex molecular regulatory networks which are often interconnected via key signal integrators. These connections among regulatory and catalytic networks often frustrate bioengineers as promising metabolic engineering strategies are bypassed by compensatory metabolic responses or cause unexpected, undesired outcomes such as apoptosis, product protein degradation or inappropriate post- translational modification. Therefore, for metabolic engineering to achieve greater success in mammalian cell culture processes and to become important for future applications such as gene therapy and tissue engineering, this technology must be enhanced to allow simultaneous, in cases conditional, reshaping of metabolic pathways to access difficult-to-attain cell states. Recent advances in this new territory of multigene metabolic engineering are intimately linked to the development of multicistronic expression technology which allows the simultaneous, and in some cases, regulated expression of several genes in mammalian cells. Here we review recent achievements in multicistronic expression technology in view of multigene metabolic engineering.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: CITE ; EMCV ; GFP ; IRES ; picornavirus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Based on internal ribosomal entry sites (IRES) of picornaviral origin we constructed a novel family of mammalian expression vectors. pQuattro vectors contain quattrocistronic artificial eukaryotic operons which link, in a single transcript, the simultaneous and coordinated as well as adjustable expression of up to three independent genes of interest to a terminal neomycin (neo) resistance marker. Due to the strict genetic linkage of the transgenes and the terminal selection marker, this genetic configuration enables, by the selection on neomycin, multigene metabolic engineering of mammalian cells in a single step (one-step metabolic engineering). Furthermore, selection on the terminal cistron of multicistronic expression units enforces cocistronic expression of all upstream encoded genes and maximises genetic integrity of the eukaryotic operon in stable mammalian cell lines, since clones harbouring damaged multicistronic expression units become neomycin-sensitive and are automatically counterselected (auto-selection). The modular set-up and the abundance of restriction sites in pQuattro vectors facilitate the movement of individual genes between multicistronic expression vectors and guarantees high compatibility with genetic elements of a wide variety of existing mammalian expression vectors.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Gonococcus ; Folic acid ; Dihydrofolate synthetase ; Folylpolyglutamate synthetase ; One-carbon metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The gene coding for folylpoly-(γ)-glutamate synthetase (FPGS)-dihydrofolate synthetase (DHFS) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo) has been cloned by functional complementation of an Escherichia coli folC mutant (SF4). The sequence encodes a 224-residue protein of 46.4 kDa. It shows 46% identity to the E. coli FPGS-DHFS and 29% identity to the FPGS of Lactobacillus casei. Sequence comparisons between the three genes reveal regions of high homology, including ATP binding sites required for bifunctionality, all of which may be important for FPGS activity. In contrast to L. casei FPGS, the E. coli and Ngo enzymes share some additional regions which may be essential for DHFS activity. The products of Ngo folC and flanking genes were monitored by T7 promoter expression. Interestingly, deletion of the upstream folI gene, which encodes a 16.5 kDa protein, abolishes the capacity of folC to complement E. coli SF4 to the wild-type phenotype. The ability to complement can be restored by folI provided in trans. Unlike folC mutants, gonococcal folI mutants are viable and display no apparent phenotype. Thus, in contrast to E. coli, Ngo folC is expressed at a sufficiently high level from its own promoter, in the absence of FolI. This study provides the first insights into the genetic complexity of one-carbon metabolism in Ngo.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: apoptosis ; Bcl-2 ; fixed-bed reactor ; regulated gene expression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Using multicistronic expression technology we generated a stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line (MG12) expressing a model secreted heterologous glycoprotein, the secreted form of the human placental alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), and bcl-2, best known as an apoptosis inhibitor, in a tetracycline-repressible dicistronic configuration. In batch cultivations in serum-containing medium, MG12 cells reached twice the final viable cell density when Bcl-2 was overexpressed (in the absence oftetracycline) compared to MG12 populations culturedunder tetracycline-containing conditions (bcl-2repressed). However, bcl-2-expressing MG12 cellsshowed no significant retardation of the decline phasecompared to batch cultures in which the dicistronicexpression unit was repressed.Genetic linkage of bcl-2 expression with the reporter protein SEAP in our multicistronic construct allowed online monitoring of Bcl-2 expression over an extended, multistage fixed-bed bioreactor cultivation. The cloned multicistronic expression unit proved to be stable over a 100 day bioreactor run. CHO MG12 cells in the fixed-bed reactor showed a drastic decrease in the release of DNA into the culture supernatant under conditions of reduced tetracycline (and hencederepressed SEAP and bcl-2 overexpression). This observation indicated enhanced robustness associated with bcl-2 overexpression, similar to recent findings for constitutive Bcl-2-overexpressing hybridoma cells under the same bioprocess conditions. These findings indicate, in these serum-containing CHO cell cultures, that overexpression of Bcl-2 results in desirable modifications in culture physiology.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] We describe the design and detailed characterization of a gas-inducible transgene control system functional in different mammalian cells, mice and prototype biopharmaceutical manufacturing. The acetaldehyde-inducible AlcR-PalcA transactivator-promoter interaction of the Aspergillus nidulans ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] Here we describe repressible (PipOFF) as well as inducible (PipON) systems for regulated gene expression in mammalian cells, based on the repressor Pip (pristinamycin-induced protein), which is encoded by the streptogramin resistance operon of Streptomyces coelicolor. Expression of genes placed ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: CHO cells ; human secreted alkaline phosphatase ; tumor suppressor genes ; green fluorescent protein ; cell cycle ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: We have established a novel production process which allows up to fourfold higher production of a model secreted protein, the human secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. A cytostatic production phase is established in which cell proliferation is inhibited or completely abolished. Such a cytostatic production phase is established by overexpression of the tumor suppressor genes p21, p27, or p53175P (a p53 mutant showing specific loss of apoptotic function) under transcriptional control of a tetracycline-repressible promoter (PhCMV*-1). In order to minimize complications due to possible clonal variation of selected, stable cell lines, our investigations are based on transiently transfected subpopulations, that have become a useful tool in industrial R&D. These subpopulations have been selected by flow cytometry for the expression of genes encoded on a dicistronic expression vector. These vectors contain a dicistronic expression unit consisting of the genes encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or SEAP, followed by one of the cytostatic genes p21, p27 or p53175P encoded by the second cistron. p21, p27 as well as p53175P block the cell cycle of CHO cells in the G1-phase for a prolonged period. However, these G1-arrested cells remain viable and proliferation proficient upon repression of expression of the cytostatic gene. All three of the cytostatic genes studied provided similar regulation of proliferation, and also similar enhancements in SEAP production, suggesting that higher productivity may be a general and intrinsic feature of G1-phase arrested CHO cells. Overall productivity is most likely enhanced because growth-arrested cells do not need to devote cellular resources to biomass production. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55:927-939, 1997.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: pTRIDENT ; tricistronic expression vectors ; gene expression ; mammalian cells ; tetracycline-responsive promoter ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: We constructed tricistronic expression vectors for the simultaneous and coordinated expression of three independent genes in mammalian cells. One single promoter allows high level and, in some vectors, adjustable transcription of all three cistrons. Whereas the first cistron is translated in a cap-dependent manner, the subsequent ones utilize intercistronic regions of viral origin such as the internal ribosomal entry site of poliovirus or the cap-independent translation enhancer of encephalomyocarditis virus for enhanced translation. Three multiple cloning sites with a total of up to 18 unique restriction sites allow sequential cloning of the genes of interest. The modular structure of this pBluescript®-based high copy number vector system allows straightforward movement of individual cistrons among members of the pTRIDENT family, and facilitates their combination with existing expression vectors. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 1-10, 1998.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] Heterologous mammalian gene regulation systems for adjustable expression of multiple transgenes are necessary for advanced human gene therapy and tissue engineering, and for sophisticated in vivo gene-function analyses, drug discovery, and biopharmaceutical manufacturing. The ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] In multicellular systems cell identity is imprinted by epigenetic regulation circuits, which determine the global transcriptome of adult cells in a cell phenotype–specific manner. By combining two repressors, which control each other's expression, we have developed a mammalian epigenetic ...
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