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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-817X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We discuss mechanisms of Ga self-diffusion and impurity diffusion in GaAs, and of layer mixing enhancement in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs). Ga self-diffusion and Ga-Al interdiffusion are governed by the triply negatively charged Ga vacancies, V Ga 3− , under intrinsic and n-doping conditions, and by doubly positively charged Ga self-interstitials, I Ga 2+ , under heavy p-doping conditions. The mechanisms responsible for enhancing MQW mixing are the Fermi-level effect for the n-dopants Si and Te, and the combined effects of the Fermi-level and the dopant diffusion-induced nonequilibrium point defects for the p-dopants Zn and Be. For n-type GaAs the donor Si atoms diffuse primarily also via V Ga 3− . For p-type GaAs the interstitial-substitutional impurities Zn and Be diffuse via the kickout mechanism and induce a supersaturation and an undersaturation in the concentrations of I Ga 2+ , respectively, under indiffusion and outdiffusion conditions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 77 (2000), S. 49-51 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The possibility of bonding clean diamond surfaces covalently in ultrahigh vacuum is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations based on a tight binding model. Our simulations predict that strong covalent bonding is possible for C(001)-2×1 surfaces. C(111)-2×1 surfaces will bond very weakly and debond already at moderate temperatures. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 74 (1999), S. 392-394 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Diffusion of carbon is mostly assumed to be governed by carbon interstitials via the kick-out mechanism. Carbon in-diffusion experiments are associated with thermal equilibrium concentrations of point defects, whereas in the case of carbon out-diffusion a remarkable undersaturation of Si self-interstitials may develop provided the carbon concentration is several orders of magnitude over its solubility value. New carbon out-diffusion experiments demonstrate that this model qualitatively describes the observed carbon diffusion profiles. However, we demonstrate that an accurate description of the experimental profiles is only possible if the Frank–Turnbull mechanism, involving vacancies, is additionally taken into account. Detailed investigations of carbon and boron profiles in the same sample can be used to determine the splitting of the known vacancy component of the silicon self-diffusion coefficient into the vacancy diffusion coefficient and the vacancy thermal equilibrium concentration at 900 °C. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 72 (1998), S. 1173-1175 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The conditions for the self-organized formation of ordered hexagonal structures in anodic alumina were investigated for both oxalic and sulfuric acid as an electrolyte. Highly ordered pore arrays were obtained for oxidation in both acids. The size of the ordered domains depends strongly on the anodizing voltage. This effect is correlated with a voltage dependence of the volume expansion of the aluminum during oxidation and the current efficiency for oxide formation. The resulting mechanical stress at the metal/oxide interface is proposed to cause repulsive forces between the neighboring pores which promote the formation of ordered hexagonal pore arrays. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 72 (1998), S. 49-51 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Silicon wafers were first implanted at room temperature by B+ with 5.0×1012 to 5.0×1015 ions/ cm2 at 180 keV, and subsequently implanted by H2〈sup ARRANGE="STAGGER"〉+ with 5.0×1016 ions/cm2 at an energy which locates the H-peak concentration in the silicon wafers at the same position as that of the implanted boron peak. Compared to the H-only implanted samples, the temperature for a B+H coimplanted silicon layer to split from its substrate after wafer bonding during a heat treatment for a given time is reduced significantly. Further reduction of the splitting temperature is accomplished by appropriate prebonding annealing of the B+H coimplanted wafers. Combination of these two effects allows the transfer of a silicon layer from a silicon wafer onto a severely thermally mismatched substrate such as quartz at a temperature as low as 200 °C. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Wafer bonding of commercial 4 in. silicon wafers has been performed at room temperature under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. After local initiation of the bonding process the bonding area is self-propagating just as in the case of wafer bonding under atmospheric conditions. The room-temperature bonded wafers, without any additional heat treatment show a bonding strength typical for bulk material. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 64 (1994), S. 625-627 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Wafers prepared by an HF dip without a subsequent water rinse were bonded at room temperature and annealed at temperatures up to 1100 °C. Based on substantial differences between bonded hydrophilic and hydrophobic Si wafer pairs in the changes of the interface energy with respect to temperature, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we suggest that hydrogen bonding between Si-F and H-Si across two mating wafers is responsible for room temperature bonding of hydrophobic Si wafers. The interface energy of the bonded hydrophobic Si wafer pairs does not change appreciably with time up to 150 °C. This stability of the bonding interface makes reversible room-temperature hydrophobic wafer bonding attractive for the protection of silicon wafer surfaces.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 62 (1993), S. 3336-3338 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: It is well-established that oxygen precipitation in silicon occurs readily and is further facilitated by the presence of carbon. In contrast, carbon precipitation in silicon appears to be a difficult process which takes place only in the presence of a sufficiently high supersaturation of oxygen or silicon self-interstitials. It is suggested that a high interface energy of carbon precipitates in conjunction with the volume decrease associated with carbon precipitation or agglomeration allows one to understand the precipitation behavior of carbon in silicon.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 62 (1993), S. 75-77 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The diffusion of iron in indium phosphide is found to proceed via the kick-out diffusion mechanism. A Fe diffusion profile in InP available from the literature is simulated using the complete set of three partial differential equations for the kick-out mechanism. A value for the contribution of indium self-interstitials to the self-diffusion coefficient of InP is extracted and found to be much smaller than the known self-diffusion coefficient determined from indium tracer diffusion measurements. Possible reasons for the observed difference are discussed. Furthermore, an analogy of diffusion in InP to diffusion in GaAs is suggested.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 54 (1989), S. 849-851 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Diffusion of elements migrating via a substitutional-interstitial mechanism in III-V compounds may induce nonequilibrium concentrations of native point defects. It has generally been assumed in the literature that, in the presence of dislocations, the point defects approach their thermal equilibrium concentrations. In contrast, it will be shown here that in III-V compounds the most favorable concentration a perturbed mobile species in one sublattice can reach corresponds to that of establishing a local equilibrium relation with another mobile species in the other sublattice if long-range transport of the defects to crystal surfaces is absent.
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