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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-01-28
    Description: Schizophrenia is a common disease with a complex aetiology, probably involving multiple and heterogeneous genetic factors. Here, by analysing the exome sequences of 2,536 schizophrenia cases and 2,543 controls, we demonstrate a polygenic burden primarily arising from rare (less than 1 in 10,000), disruptive mutations distributed across many genes. Particularly enriched gene sets include the voltage-gated calcium ion channel and the signalling complex formed by the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated scaffold protein (ARC) of the postsynaptic density, sets previously implicated by genome-wide association and copy-number variation studies. Similar to reports in autism, targets of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, product of FMR1) are enriched for case mutations. No individual gene-based test achieves significance after correction for multiple testing and we do not detect any alleles of moderately low frequency (approximately 0.5 to 1 per cent) and moderately large effect. Taken together, these data suggest that population-based exome sequencing can discover risk alleles and complements established gene-mapping paradigms in neuropsychiatric disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4136494/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4136494/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Purcell, Shaun M -- Moran, Jennifer L -- Fromer, Menachem -- Ruderfer, Douglas -- Solovieff, Nadia -- Roussos, Panos -- O'Dushlaine, Colm -- Chambert, Kimberly -- Bergen, Sarah E -- Kahler, Anna -- Duncan, Laramie -- Stahl, Eli -- Genovese, Giulio -- Fernandez, Esperanza -- Collins, Mark O -- Komiyama, Noboru H -- Choudhary, Jyoti S -- Magnusson, Patrik K E -- Banks, Eric -- Shakir, Khalid -- Garimella, Kiran -- Fennell, Tim -- DePristo, Mark -- Grant, Seth G N -- Haggarty, Stephen J -- Gabriel, Stacey -- Scolnick, Edward M -- Lander, Eric S -- Hultman, Christina M -- Sullivan, Patrick F -- McCarroll, Steven A -- Sklar, Pamela -- G0802238/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- I01 BX002395/BX/BLRD VA/ -- R01 HG005827/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH077139/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH091115/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH095034/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH095088/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH099126/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RC2MH089905/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32 MH017119/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- TT32MH017119/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 13;506(7487):185-90. doi: 10.1038/nature12975. Epub 2014 Jan 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Division of Psychiatric Genomics, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA [3] Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA [4] Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA [5] Medical and Population Genetics Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2]. ; 1] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Division of Psychiatric Genomics, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA [3] Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA [4] Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA [5]. ; 1] Division of Psychiatric Genomics, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA [2] Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA [3]. ; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; 1] Division of Psychiatric Genomics, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA [2] Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE-171 77, Sweden. ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE-171 77, Sweden. ; 1] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA [3] Medical and Population Genetics Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Center for Human Genetics, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium [2] VIB Center for Biology of Disease, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. ; Proteomic Mass Spectrometry, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Medical and Population Genetics Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Genes to Cognition Programme, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences and Centre for Neuroregeneration, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK. ; 1] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA [3] Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Departments of Genetics and Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7264, USA. ; 1] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Medical and Population Genetics Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [3] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Division of Psychiatric Genomics, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA [2] Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA [3] Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24463508" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Autistic Disorder/genetics ; Calcium Channels/genetics ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics ; DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics ; Female ; Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/metabolism ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Intellectual Disability/genetics ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/genetics ; Multifactorial Inheritance/*genetics ; Mutation/*genetics ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/genetics ; Schizophrenia/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-08-17
    Description: Inactivation of tumour-suppressor genes by homozygous deletion is a prototypic event in the cancer genome, yet such deletions often encompass neighbouring genes. We propose that homozygous deletions in such passenger genes can expose cancer-specific therapeutic vulnerabilities when the collaterally deleted gene is a member of a functionally redundant family of genes carrying out an essential function. The glycolytic gene enolase 1 (ENO1) in the 1p36 locus is deleted in glioblastoma (GBM), which is tolerated by the expression of ENO2. Here we show that short-hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing of ENO2 selectively inhibits growth, survival and the tumorigenic potential of ENO1-deleted GBM cells, and that the enolase inhibitor phosphonoacetohydroxamate is selectively toxic to ENO1-deleted GBM cells relative to ENO1-intact GBM cells or normal astrocytes. The principle of collateral vulnerability should be applicable to other passenger-deleted genes encoding functionally redundant essential activities and provide an effective treatment strategy for cancers containing such genomic events.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712624/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712624/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Muller, Florian L -- Colla, Simona -- Aquilanti, Elisa -- Manzo, Veronica E -- Genovese, Giannicola -- Lee, Jaclyn -- Eisenson, Daniel -- Narurkar, Rujuta -- Deng, Pingna -- Nezi, Luigi -- Lee, Michelle A -- Hu, Baoli -- Hu, Jian -- Sahin, Ergun -- Ong, Derrick -- Fletcher-Sananikone, Eliot -- Ho, Dennis -- Kwong, Lawrence -- Brennan, Cameron -- Wang, Y Alan -- Chin, Lynda -- DePinho, Ronald A -- 3 P01 CA095616-08S1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 57006984/Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- P01 CA095616/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA95616/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32-CA009361/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 16;488(7411):337-42. doi: 10.1038/nature11331.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genomic Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22895339" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Biomarkers, Tumor/deficiency/genetics ; Brain Neoplasms/*drug therapy/*genetics/pathology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/deficiency/genetics ; Enzyme Inhibitors ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Genes, Essential/*genetics ; Genes, Tumor Suppressor ; Glioblastoma/*drug therapy/*genetics/pathology ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Hydroxamic Acids/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Mice ; Molecular Targeted Therapy/*methods ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Phosphonoacetic Acid/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Phosphopyruvate Hydratase/antagonists & inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics ; Sequence Deletion/*genetics ; Tumor Suppressor Proteins/deficiency/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-07-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Muller, Florian -- Colla, Simona -- Aquilanti, Elisa -- Manzo, Veronica E -- Genovese, Giannicola -- Lee, Jaclyn -- Eisenson, Daniel -- Narurkar, Rujuta -- Deng, Pingna -- Nezi, Luigi -- Lee, Michelle -- Hu, Baoli -- Hu, Jian -- Sahin, Ergun -- Ong, Derrick -- Fletcher-Sananikone, Eliot -- Ho, Dennis -- Kwong, Lawrence -- Brennan, Cameron -- Wang, Y Alan -- Chin, Lynda -- DePinho, Ronald A -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 10;525(7568):278. doi: 10.1038/nature14609. Epub 2015 Jul 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26153864" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers in western countries, with a median survival of 6 months and an extremely low percentage of long-term surviving patients. KRAS mutations are known to be a driver event of PDAC, but targeting mutant KRAS has proved challenging. Targeting oncogene-driven signalling pathways is a clinically validated approach for several devastating diseases. Still, despite marked tumour shrinkage, the frequency of relapse indicates that a fraction of tumour cells survives shut down of oncogenic signalling. Here we explore the role of mutant KRAS in PDAC maintenance using a recently developed inducible mouse model of mutated Kras (Kras(G12D), herein KRas) in a p53(LoxP/WT) background. We demonstrate that a subpopulation of dormant tumour cells surviving oncogene ablation (surviving cells) and responsible for tumour relapse has features of cancer stem cells and relies on oxidative phosphorylation for survival. Transcriptomic and metabolic analyses of surviving cells reveal prominent expression of genes governing mitochondrial function, autophagy and lysosome activity, as well as a strong reliance on mitochondrial respiration and a decreased dependence on glycolysis for cellular energetics. Accordingly, surviving cells show high sensitivity to oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors, which can inhibit tumour recurrence. Our integrated analyses illuminate a therapeutic strategy of combined targeting of the KRAS pathway and mitochondrial respiration to manage pancreatic cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4376130/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4376130/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Viale, Andrea -- Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio -- Lyssiotis, Costas A -- Ying, Haoqiang -- Sanchez, Nora -- Marchesini, Matteo -- Carugo, Alessandro -- Green, Tessa -- Seth, Sahil -- Giuliani, Virginia -- Kost-Alimova, Maria -- Muller, Florian -- Colla, Simona -- Nezi, Luigi -- Genovese, Giannicola -- Deem, Angela K -- Kapoor, Avnish -- Yao, Wantong -- Brunetto, Emanuela -- Kang, Ya'an -- Yuan, Min -- Asara, John M -- Wang, Y Alan -- Heffernan, Timothy P -- Kimmelman, Alec C -- Wang, Huamin -- Fleming, Jason B -- Cantley, Lewis C -- DePinho, Ronald A -- Draetta, Giulio F -- CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA16672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA117969/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA120964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA117969/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA120964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA16672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA127003/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 30;514(7524):628-32. doi: 10.1038/nature13611. Epub 2014 Aug 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [3]. ; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [3] Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan 20139, Italy. ; Institute for Applied Cancer Science, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Pathology Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan 20132, Italy. ; Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Division of Signal Transduction, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119024" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autophagy ; Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/drug therapy/genetics/*metabolism/*pathology ; Cell Respiration/drug effects ; Cell Survival/drug effects ; Disease Models, Animal ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Genes, p53/genetics ; Glycolysis ; Lysosomes/metabolism ; Mice ; Mitochondria/drug effects/*metabolism ; Mutation/genetics ; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control ; Neoplastic Stem Cells/drug effects/metabolism/pathology ; Oxidative Phosphorylation/drug effects ; Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics/*metabolism/*pathology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/*genetics/metabolism ; Recurrence ; Signal Transduction
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Schizophrenia is a heritable brain illness with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. Schizophrenia's strongest genetic association at a population level involves variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, but the genes and molecular mechanisms accounting for this have been challenging to identify. Here we show that this association arises in part from many structurally diverse alleles of the complement component 4 (C4) genes. We found that these alleles generated widely varying levels of C4A and C4B expression in the brain, with each common C4 allele associating with schizophrenia in proportion to its tendency to generate greater expression of C4A. Human C4 protein localized to neuronal synapses, dendrites, axons, and cell bodies. In mice, C4 mediated synapse elimination during postnatal development. These results implicate excessive complement activity in the development of schizophrenia and may help explain the reduced numbers of synapses in the brains of individuals with schizophrenia.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4752392/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4752392/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sekar, Aswin -- Bialas, Allison R -- de Rivera, Heather -- Davis, Avery -- Hammond, Timothy R -- Kamitaki, Nolan -- Tooley, Katherine -- Presumey, Jessy -- Baum, Matthew -- Van Doren, Vanessa -- Genovese, Giulio -- Rose, Samuel A -- Handsaker, Robert E -- Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium -- Daly, Mark J -- Carroll, Michael C -- Stevens, Beth -- McCarroll, Steven A -- R01 HG006855/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH077139/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH105641/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):177-83. doi: 10.1038/nature16549. Epub 2016 Jan 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; MD-PhD Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Neurology, F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Analytical and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26814963" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Axons/metabolism ; Base Sequence ; Brain/metabolism/pathology ; Complement C4/chemistry/*genetics ; Complement Pathway, Classical ; Dendrites/metabolism ; Gene Dosage/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; Haplotypes/genetics ; Humans ; Major Histocompatibility Complex/genetics ; Mice ; Models, Animal ; Neuronal Plasticity/genetics/physiology ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/genetics ; Risk Factors ; Schizophrenia/*genetics/pathology ; Synapses/metabolism
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; RISK-FACTORS ; COMMON VARIANT ; CHINESE POPULATION ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; MACULAR DEGENERATION ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCI ; GENETIC-VARIANTS ; QUANTITATIVE-TRAIT LOCI ; DISCORDANT SIB PAIRS
    Abstract: Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1x10(-9)). The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in chi(2) test statistics and a commensurate increase in power. This suggests that applying our method to existing and future association studies of these diseases may identify novel disease loci.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23144628
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-12
    Description: Thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Philadelphia chromosome–negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), clonal disorders of hematopoiesis characterized by activated Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, a component of innate immunity, has been linked to thrombosis. We demonstrate that neutrophils from patients with MPNs are primed for NET formation, an effect blunted by pharmacological inhibition of JAK signaling. Mice with conditional knock-in of Jak2 V617F , the most common molecular driver of MPN, have an increased propensity for NET formation and thrombosis. Inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling with the clinically available JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib abrogated NET formation and reduced thrombosis in a deep vein stenosis murine model. We further show that expression of PAD4, a protein required for NET formation, is increased in JAK2 V617F -expressing neutrophils and that PAD4 is required for Jak2 V617F -driven NET formation and thrombosis in vivo. Finally, in a population study of more than 10,000 individuals without a known myeloid disorder, JAK2 V617F -positive clonal hematopoiesis was associated with an increased incidence of thrombosis. In aggregate, our results link JAK2 V617F expression to NET formation and thrombosis and suggest that JAK2 inhibition may reduce thrombosis in MPNs through cell-intrinsic effects on neutrophil function.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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