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  • 1
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a chromatin-binding nuclear protein, plays a critical role in sepsis by acting as a key "late-phase" inflammatory mediator. Integrin CD11b is essential for inflammatory cell activation and migration, thus mediating inflammatory responses. However, it is unclear whether CD11b participates in the development of sepsis. In this study, we report that CD11b contributes to LPS-induced endotoxin shock and microbial sepsis, as antagonism of CD11b with the CD11b blocking Ab or CD11b inhibitor Gu-4 protects mice against LPS- and microbial sepsis-related lethality, which is associated with significantly diminished serum HMGB1 levels. Consistent with this, CD11b-deficient mice were more resistant to microbial sepsis with a much lower serum HMGB1 level compared with wild-type mice. Pharmacological blockage and genetic knockdown/knockout of CD11b in murine macrophages hampered LPS-stimulated HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation and extracellular release. Furthermore, silencing CD11b interrupted the interaction of HMGB1 with either a nuclear export factor chromosome region maintenance 1 or classical protein kinase C and inhibited classical protein kinase C–induced HMGB1 phosphorylation, the potential underlying mechanism(s) responsible for CD11b blockage-induced suppression of HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation and subsequent extracellular release. Thus, our results highlight that CD11b contributes to the development of sepsis, predominantly by facilitating nucleocytoplasmic translocation and active release of HMGB1.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 371 (1994), S. 9-9 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR - We wish to draw your readers' attention to the outcome of an important conference held by UNESCO and the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) at the Komarov Botanical Institute in St Petersburg in December 1993. Among other things, the status and the future of botanical ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Thiazolidinediones are a new class of antidiabetic agent that improve insulin sensitivity and reduce plasma glucose and blood pressure in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Although these agents can bind and activate an orphan nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1437-9813
    Keywords: Key words Gastric erosions ; Drug intake ; Children ; Acute gastrointestinal bleeding ; Endoscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The authors evaluated the relationship between drug intake and upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The endoscopic files of the previous 2 years were reviewed and the incidence and age and sex distribution recorded. GI bleeding is indication for a high percentage of lower endoscopies and a low percentage of upper endoscopies. On the other hand, although rarer upper GI bleeding is more severe and frequently related to drug ingestion. About 50% of cases showed gastric erosions secondary to drug intake. A relation between gastric bleeding and paracetamol is considered, as is the possibility of preventing secondary severe bleeding by pharmacologic gastric protection in children with risk factors such as chronic use of other drugs or portal hypertension.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Type 1 T helper (Th1) cells play a critical role in host defense against intracellular pathogens and in autoimmune diseases by producing a key inflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)–; some Th1 cells can also be antiinflammatory through producing IL-10. However, the molecular switch for regulating the differentiation of inflammatory and antiinflammatory Th1 cells is still elusive. Here, we show that Bhlhe40 -deficient CD4 Th1 cells produced less IFN- but substantially more IL-10 than wild-type Th1 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Bhlhe40-mediated IFN- production was independent of transcription factor T-bet regulation. Mice with conditional deletion of Bhlhe40 in T cells succumbed to Toxoplasma gondii infection, and blockade of IL-10 signaling during infection rescued these mice from death. Thus, our results demonstrate that transcription factor Bhlhe40 is a molecular switch for determining the fate of inflammatory and antiinflammatory Th1 cells.
    Keywords: Infectious Disease and Host Defense
    Print ISSN: 0022-1007
    Electronic ISSN: 1540-9538
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-16
    Description: Purpose: Infused autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumor-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells typically surround malignant lesions or penetrate small tumor nodules but fail to penetrate large solid tumors, significantly compromising their antitumor impact. Strategies to overcome this primary challenge are largely required. Experimental Design: We tested the effects of IL12 plus doxorubicin on T-cell penetration and efficacy in solid tumors in a murine lung cancer model, a murine breast carcinoma lung metastasis model, and two human xenograft tumor models bearing large tumors (〉10 mm). Results: Intriguingly, this simple approach increased the numbers, the distribution, and the depth of penetration of infused CD8 + T cells in these tumors, including both TILs and CAR T cells. This combined treatment halted tumor progression and significantly extended survival time. Studies of the underlying mechanism revealed multiple effects. First, the combined treatment maintained the high ratios of immune-stimulatory receptors to immune-inhibitory receptors on infiltrated CD8 + T cells, reduced the accumulation of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells, and enhanced the numbers of T-bet + effector T cells in the tumors. Second, doxorubicin induced chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, which may attract NKG2D + CD8 + T cells to tumors, and this effect was boosted by IL12-induced IFN accumulation in tumors, promoting the penetration of NKG2D + CD8 + T cells. Conclusions: The deep penetration of infused T cells associated with combined IL12 plus doxorubicin yielded striking therapeutic effects in murine and human xenograft solid tumors. This approach might broaden the application of T-cell therapy to a wider range of solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 24(12); 2920–34. ©2018 AACR . See related commentary by Berraondo et al., p. 2716
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: The FGFR kinases are promising therapeutic targets in multiple cancer types, including lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and bladder cancer. Although several FGFR kinase inhibitors have entered clinical trials, single-agent clinical efficacy has been modest and resistance invariably occurs. We therefore conducted a genome-wide functional screen to characterize mechanisms of resistance to FGFR inhibition in a FGFR1 -dependent lung cancer cellular model. Our screen identified known resistance drivers, such as MET, and additional novel resistance mediators including members of the neurotrophin receptor pathway (NTRK), the TAM family of tyrosine kinases (TYRO3, MERTK, AXL), and MAPK pathway, which were further validated in additional FGFR-dependent models. In an orthogonal approach, we generated a large panel of resistant clones by chronic exposure to FGFR inhibitors in FGFR1- and FGFR3-dependent cellular models and characterized gene expression profiles employing the L1000 platform. Notably, resistant clones had enrichment for NTRK and MAPK signaling pathways. Novel mediators of resistance to FGFR inhibition were found to compensate for FGFR loss in part through reactivation of MAPK pathway. Intriguingly, coinhibition of FGFR and specific receptor tyrosine kinases identified in our screen was not sufficient to suppress ERK activity or to prevent resistance to FGFR inhibition, suggesting a redundant reactivation of RAS–MAPK pathway. Dual blockade of FGFR and MEK, however, proved to be a more powerful approach in preventing resistance across diverse FGFR dependencies and may represent a therapeutic opportunity to achieve durable responses to FGFR inhibition in FGFR-dependent cancers. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(7); 1526–39. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1535-7163
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-8514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-09-03
    Description: In the central nervous system, ageing results in a precipitous decline in adult neural stem/progenitor cells and neurogenesis, with concomitant impairments in cognitive functions. Interestingly, such impairments can be ameliorated through systemic perturbations such as exercise. Here, using heterochronic parabiosis we show that blood-borne factors present in the systemic milieu can inhibit or promote adult neurogenesis in an age-dependent fashion in mice. Accordingly, exposing a young mouse to an old systemic environment or to plasma from old mice decreased synaptic plasticity, and impaired contextual fear conditioning and spatial learning and memory. We identify chemokines--including CCL11 (also known as eotaxin)--the plasma levels of which correlate with reduced neurogenesis in heterochronic parabionts and aged mice, and the levels of which are increased in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of healthy ageing humans. Lastly, increasing peripheral CCL11 chemokine levels in vivo in young mice decreased adult neurogenesis and impaired learning and memory. Together our data indicate that the decline in neurogenesis and cognitive impairments observed during ageing can be in part attributed to changes in blood-borne factors.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3170097/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3170097/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Villeda, Saul A -- Luo, Jian -- Mosher, Kira I -- Zou, Bende -- Britschgi, Markus -- Bieri, Gregor -- Stan, Trisha M -- Fainberg, Nina -- Ding, Zhaoqing -- Eggel, Alexander -- Lucin, Kurt M -- Czirr, Eva -- Park, Jeong-Soo -- Couillard-Despres, Sebastien -- Aigner, Ludwig -- Li, Ge -- Peskind, Elaine R -- Kaye, Jeffrey A -- Quinn, Joseph F -- Galasko, Douglas R -- Xie, Xinmin S -- Rando, Thomas A -- Wyss-Coray, Tony -- 1 F31 AG034045-01/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- 1 F31 NS066676-01A1/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- DP1 OD000392/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP1 OD000392-01/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP1 OD000392-02/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP1 OD000392-03/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP1 OD000392-04/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP1 OD000392-05/OD/NIH HHS/ -- F31 AG034045/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- F31 AG034045-01/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- F31 AG034045-02/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- F31 AG034045-03/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P30AG08017/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P50 AG005136/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG027505/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG027505-01A1/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG027505-02/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG027505-03/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG027505-04/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG027505-05/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR056849/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH078194/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01AG027505/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007290/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 31;477(7362):90-4. doi: 10.1038/nature10357.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21886162" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Animals ; Chemokine CCL11/blood/cerebrospinal fluid/metabolism/pharmacology ; Chemokines/*blood/cerebrospinal fluid/*metabolism ; Female ; Learning/drug effects/*physiology ; Learning Disorders/blood/cerebrospinal fluid/physiopathology ; Male ; Memory Disorders/blood/cerebrospinal fluid/physiopathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neurogenesis/drug effects/*physiology ; Parabiosis ; Plasma/chemistry ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-06-29
    Description: Functionalization of unactivated carbon-hydrogen (C-H) single bonds is an efficient strategy for rapid generation of complex molecules from simpler ones. However, it is difficult to achieve selectivity when multiple inequivalent C-H bonds are present in the target molecule. The usual approach is to use sigma-chelating directing groups, which lead to ortho-selectivity through the formation of a conformationally rigid six- or seven-membered cyclic pre-transition state. Despite the broad utility of this approach, proximity-driven reactivity prevents the activation of remote C-H bonds. Here we report a class of easily removable nitrile-containing templates that direct the activation of distal meta-C-H bonds (more than ten bonds away) of a tethered arene. We attribute this new mode of C-H activation to a weak 'end-on' interaction between the linear nitrile group and the metal centre. The 'end-on' coordination geometry relieves the strain of the cyclophane-like pre-transition state of the meta-C-H activation event. In addition, this template overrides the intrinsic electronic and steric biases as well as ortho-directing effects with two broadly useful classes of arene substrates (toluene derivatives and hydrocinnamic acids).〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3386562/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3386562/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Leow, Dasheng -- Li, Gang -- Mei, Tian-Sheng -- Yu, Jin-Quan -- 1 R01 GM084019-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084019/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084019-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jun 27;486(7404):518-22. doi: 10.1038/nature11158.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22739317" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alkenes/chemistry ; Carbon/*chemistry ; Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic/*methods ; Ethers, Cyclic/chemistry ; Hydrogen/*chemistry ; Nitriles/chemistry ; Phenylpropionates/chemistry ; Piperidines/chemistry ; Toluene/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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