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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a key signal-transduction enzyme, increases the conversion of guanosine-5'-triphosphate to cGMP upon binding of nitric oxide (NO). Endothelial dysfunction and/or reduced NO signaling have been implicated in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis and complications of diabetes and have been associated with other disease states and aging. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulators are small-molecule drugs that bind sGC and enhance NO-mediated cGMP signaling. The pharmacological characterization of IW-1973 [1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(((5-fluoro-2-(1-(2-fluorobenzyl)-5-(isoxazol-3-yl)-1 H -pyrazol-3-yl) pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)methyl)propan-2-ol], a novel clinical-stage sGC stimulator under clinical investigation for treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and diabetic nephropathy, is described. In the presence of NO, IW-1973 stimulated sGC in a human purified enzyme assay and a HEK-293 whole cell assay. sGC stimulation by IW-1973 in cells was associated with increased phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. IW-1973, at doses of 1–10 mg/kg, significantly lowered blood pressure in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. In a Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension model, IW-1973 significantly reduced blood pressure, inflammatory cytokine levels, and renal disease markers, including proteinuria and renal fibrotic gene expression. The results were affirmed in mouse lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and rat unilateral ureteral obstruction renal fibrosis models. A quantitative whole-body autoradiography study of IW-1973 revealed extensive tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic studies showed a large volume of distribution and a profile consistent with predicted once-a-day dosing in humans. In summary, IW-1973 is a potent, orally available sGC stimulator that exhibits renoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects in nonclinical models.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3565
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0103
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Keywords: brain ; tumor ; COMMON ; DISEASE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; validation ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST-CANCER ; DELETION ; genetics ; SNP ; RETINOIC ACID ; brain tumor ; VARIANT ; GLIOMA ; SNPs ; METAANALYSIS ; ALLELES ; USA ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM TUMORS ; GLIOBLASTOMA ; LOCI ; 8Q24 ; BIRTH-WEIGHT ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; Genetic ; Genome-wide association studies ; BRAIN-TUMOR
    Abstract: To identify risk variants for glioma, we conducted a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies by genotyping 550K tagging SNPs in a total of 1,878 cases and 3,670 controls, with validation in three additional independent series totaling 2,545 cases and 2,953 controls. We identified five risk loci for glioma at 5p15.33 (rs2736100, TERT; P = 1.50 x 10(-17)), 8q24.21 (rs4295627, CCDC26; P = 2.34 x 10(-18)), 9p21.3 (rs4977756, CDKN2A-CDKN2B; P = 7.24 x 10(-15)), 20q13.33 (rs6010620, RTEL1; P = 2.52 x 10(-12)) and 11q23.3 (rs498872, PHLDB1; P = 1.07 x 10(-8)). These data show that common low-penetrance susceptibility alleles contribute to the risk of developing glioma and provide insight into disease causation of this primary brain tumor
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19578367
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-07-10
    Description: The Th2-biased inflammation and immune deregulation play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Recent studies indicate that the Bcl2-like protein 12 (Bcl2L12) is associated with immune deregulation of UC. This study aims to investigate the role of Bcl2L12 in the induction of aberrant Th2-biased inflammation. In this study, peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The Th2 cell activities were analyzed by flow cytometry, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blotting. Mice with Bcl2L12-knockout CD4 + T cells were used in the experiments. The results showed that the expression of Bcl2L12 was detected in peripheral CD4 + T cells, which was significantly higher in UC patients than in healthy subjects. A positive correlation between the expression of Bcl2L12 and Th2 cytokines was detected in CD4 + T cells from UC patients. Naive CD4 + T cells with Bcl2L12 overexpression were prone to differentiate into Th2 cells. Mice with Bcl2L12 deficiency failed to induce the Th2-biased inflammation in the intestine. Bcl2L12 bound GATA3 to form a complex to enhance the binding between GATA3 and the Il4 promoter to enhance the expression of IL-4 in CD4 + T cells. CD4 + T cells with Bcl2L12 overexpression were resistant to apoptosis. In conclusion, the Bcl2L12 is a critical factor in the induction of aberrant Th2 polarization by upregulating Th2 responses and downregulating Th2 cell apoptosis. Bcl2L12 may be a novel therapeutic target in the management of the disorders with Th2-biased inflammation.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: Eleri Short, Margaret Leighton, Gul Imriz, Dongbin Liu, Naomi Cope-Selby, Flora Hetherington, Andrei Smertenko, Patrick J. Hussey, Jennifer F. Topping, and Keith Lindsey The epidermis is hypothesized to play a signalling role during plant development. One class of mutants showing defects in signal transduction and radial patterning are those in sterol biosynthesis. The expectation is that living cells require sterols, but it is not clear that all cell types express sterol biosynthesis genes. The HYDRA1 ( HYD1 ) gene of Arabidopsis encodes sterol 8-7 isomerase, and although hyd1 seedlings are defective in radial patterning across several tissues, we show that the HYD1 gene is expressed most strongly in the root epidermis. Transgenic activation of HYD1 transcription in the epidermis of hyd1 null mutants reveals a major role in root patterning and growth. HYD1 expression in the vascular tissues and root meristem, though not endodermis or pericycle, also leads to some phenotypic rescue. Phenotypic rescue is associated with rescued patterning of the PIN1 and PIN2 auxin efflux carriers. The importance of the epidermis in controlling root growth and development is proposed to be, in part, due to its role as a site for sterol biosynthesis, and auxin is a candidate for the non-cell-autonomous signal.
    Keywords: Plant development
    Print ISSN: 0950-1991
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-9129
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Although a variety of affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) strategies have been used to investigate complex interactions, many of these are susceptible to artifacts because of substantial overexpression of the exogenously expressed bait protein. Here we present a logical and systematic workflow that uses the multifunctional Halo tag to assess the correct localization and behavior of tagged subunits of the Sin3 histone deacetylase complex prior to further AP-MS analysis. Using this workflow, we modified our tagging/expression strategy with 21.7% of the tagged bait proteins that we constructed, allowing us to quickly develop validated reagents. Specifically, we apply the workflow to map interactions between stably expressed versions of the Sin3 subunits SUDS3, SAP30, or SAP30L and other cellular proteins. Here we show that the SAP30 and SAP30L paralogues strongly associate with the core Sin3 complex, but SAP30L has unique associations with the proteasome and the myelin sheath. Next, we demonstrate an advancement of the complex NSAF (cNSAF) approach, in which normalization to the scaffold protein SIN3A accounts for variations in the proportion of each bait capturing Sin3 complexes and allows a comparison among different baits capturing the same protein complex. This analysis reveals that although the Sin3 subunit SUDS3 appears to be used in both SIN3A and SIN3B based complexes, the SAP30 subunit is not used in SIN3B based complexes. Intriguingly, we do not detect the Sin3 subunits SAP18 and SAP25 among the 128 high-confidence interactions identified, suggesting that these subunits may not be common to all versions of the Sin3 complex in human cells. This workflow provides the framework for building validated reagents to assemble quantitative interaction networks for chromatin remodeling complexes and provides novel insights into focused protein interaction networks.
    Print ISSN: 1535-9476
    Electronic ISSN: 1535-9484
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-05-03
    Description: Ageing is a result of gradual and overall functional deteriorations across the body; however, it is unknown whether an individual tissue primarily works to mediate the ageing progress and control lifespan. Here we show that the hypothalamus is important for the development of whole-body ageing in mice, and that the underlying basis involves hypothalamic immunity mediated by IkappaB kinase-beta (IKK-beta), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and related microglia-neuron immune crosstalk. Several interventional models were developed showing that ageing retardation and lifespan extension are achieved in mice by preventing ageing-related hypothalamic or brain IKK-beta and NF-kappaB activation. Mechanistic studies further revealed that IKK-beta and NF-kappaB inhibit gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to mediate ageing-related hypothalamic GnRH decline, and GnRH treatment amends ageing-impaired neurogenesis and decelerates ageing. In conclusion, the hypothalamus has a programmatic role in ageing development via immune-neuroendocrine integration, and immune inhibition or GnRH restoration in the hypothalamus/brain represent two potential strategies for optimizing lifespan and combating ageing-related health problems.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3756938/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3756938/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Guo -- Li, Juxue -- Purkayastha, Sudarshana -- Tang, Yizhe -- Zhang, Hai -- Yin, Ye -- Li, Bo -- Liu, Gang -- Cai, Dongsheng -- P30 AG038072/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P60 DK020541/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG031774/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK078750/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01AG031774/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 May 9;497(7448):211-6. doi: 10.1038/nature12143. Epub 2013 May 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636330" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/drug effects/genetics/*physiology ; Animals ; Brain/drug effects/physiology ; Cognition/drug effects ; Female ; Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Hypothalamus/cytology/drug effects/enzymology/*physiology ; I-kappa B Kinase/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Longevity/drug effects/genetics/physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Microglia/enzymology/physiology ; NF-kappa B/*metabolism ; Neurogenesis ; Reproduction/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-03-29
    Description: About 8,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent, a spontaneous hybridization of the wild diploid grass Aegilops tauschii (2n = 14; DD) with the cultivated tetraploid wheat Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; AABB) resulted in hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum; 2n = 6x = 42; AABBDD). Wheat has since become a primary staple crop worldwide as a result of its enhanced adaptability to a wide range of climates and improved grain quality for the production of baker's flour. Here we describe sequencing the Ae. tauschii genome and obtaining a roughly 90-fold depth of short reads from libraries with various insert sizes, to gain a better understanding of this genetically complex plant. The assembled scaffolds represented 83.4% of the genome, of which 65.9% comprised transposable elements. We generated comprehensive RNA-Seq data and used it to identify 43,150 protein-coding genes, of which 30,697 (71.1%) were uniquely anchored to chromosomes with an integrated high-density genetic map. Whole-genome analysis revealed gene family expansion in Ae. tauschii of agronomically relevant gene families that were associated with disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance and grain quality. This draft genome sequence provides insight into the environmental adaptation of bread wheat and can aid in defining the large and complicated genomes of wheat species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jia, Jizeng -- Zhao, Shancen -- Kong, Xiuying -- Li, Yingrui -- Zhao, Guangyao -- He, Weiming -- Appels, Rudi -- Pfeifer, Matthias -- Tao, Yong -- Zhang, Xueyong -- Jing, Ruilian -- Zhang, Chi -- Ma, Youzhi -- Gao, Lifeng -- Gao, Chuan -- Spannagl, Manuel -- Mayer, Klaus F X -- Li, Dong -- Pan, Shengkai -- Zheng, Fengya -- Hu, Qun -- Xia, Xianchun -- Li, Jianwen -- Liang, Qinsi -- Chen, Jie -- Wicker, Thomas -- Gou, Caiyun -- Kuang, Hanhui -- He, Genyun -- Luo, Yadan -- Keller, Beat -- Xia, Qiuju -- Lu, Peng -- Wang, Junyi -- Zou, Hongfeng -- Zhang, Rongzhi -- Xu, Junyang -- Gao, Jinlong -- Middleton, Christopher -- Quan, Zhiwu -- Liu, Guangming -- Wang, Jian -- International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium -- Yang, Huanming -- Liu, Xu -- He, Zhonghu -- Mao, Long -- Wang, Jun -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 4;496(7443):91-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12028. Epub 2013 Mar 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23535592" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological/*genetics ; Brachypodium/genetics ; Chromosome Mapping ; Chromosomes, Plant/genetics ; DNA Transposable Elements/genetics ; Disease Resistance/genetics ; Genes, Plant/genetics ; Genome, Plant/*genetics ; Hordeum/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Plant Diseases ; Poaceae/*genetics ; Polyploidy ; Sequence Analysis, RNA ; Transcription Factors/genetics ; Triticum/*genetics/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-01-07
    Description: Mechanisms that maintain cancer stem cells are crucial to tumour progression. The ID2 protein supports cancer hallmarks including the cancer stem cell state. HIFalpha transcription factors, most notably HIF2alpha (also known as EPAS1), are expressed in and required for maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the pathways that are engaged by ID2 or drive HIF2alpha accumulation in CSCs have remained unclear. Here we report that DYRK1A and DYRK1B kinases phosphorylate ID2 on threonine 27 (Thr27). Hypoxia downregulates this phosphorylation via inactivation of DYRK1A and DYRK1B. The activity of these kinases is stimulated in normoxia by the oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase PHD1 (also known as EGLN2). ID2 binds to the VHL ubiquitin ligase complex, displaces VHL-associated Cullin 2, and impairs HIF2alpha ubiquitylation and degradation. Phosphorylation of Thr27 of ID2 by DYRK1 blocks ID2-VHL interaction and preserves HIF2alpha ubiquitylation. In glioblastoma, ID2 positively modulates HIF2alpha activity. Conversely, elevated expression of DYRK1 phosphorylates Thr27 of ID2, leading to HIF2alpha destabilization, loss of glioma stemness, inhibition of tumour growth, and a more favourable outcome for patients with glioblastoma.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Sang Bae -- Frattini, Veronique -- Bansal, Mukesh -- Castano, Angelica M -- Sherman, Dan -- Hutchinson, Keino -- Bruce, Jeffrey N -- Califano, Andrea -- Liu, Guangchao -- Cardozo, Timothy -- Iavarone, Antonio -- Lasorella, Anna -- R01CA101644/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA131126/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA178546/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01NS061776/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):172-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16475. Epub 2016 Jan 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA. ; Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, NYU School of Medicine, New York 10014, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26735018" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Cell Hypoxia ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cullin Proteins/metabolism ; Glioblastoma/*metabolism/*pathology ; Humans ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases/metabolism ; Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 2/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Neoplastic Stem Cells/*metabolism/pathology ; Oxygen/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Phosphothreonine/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Ubiquitination ; Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-12-18
    Description: Strigolactones (SLs) are a group of newly identified plant hormones that control plant shoot branching. SL signalling requires the hormone-dependent interaction of DWARF 14 (D14), a probable candidate SL receptor, with DWARF 3 (D3), an F-box component of the Skp-Cullin-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Here we report the characterization of a dominant SL-insensitive rice (Oryza sativa) mutant dwarf 53 (d53) and the cloning of D53, which encodes a substrate of the SCF(D3) ubiquitination complex and functions as a repressor of SL signalling. Treatments with GR24, a synthetic SL analogue, cause D53 degradation via the proteasome in a manner that requires D14 and the SCF(D3) ubiquitin ligase, whereas the dominant form of D53 is resistant to SL-mediated degradation. Moreover, D53 can interact with transcriptional co-repressors known as TOPLESS-RELATED PROTEINS. Our results suggest a model of SL signalling that involves SL-dependent degradation of the D53 repressor mediated by the D14-D3 complex.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jiang, Liang -- Liu, Xue -- Xiong, Guosheng -- Liu, Huihui -- Chen, Fulu -- Wang, Lei -- Meng, Xiangbing -- Liu, Guifu -- Yu, Hong -- Yuan, Yundong -- Yi, Wei -- Zhao, Lihua -- Ma, Honglei -- He, Yuanzheng -- Wu, Zhongshan -- Melcher, Karsten -- Qian, Qian -- Xu, H Eric -- Wang, Yonghong -- Li, Jiayang -- England -- Nature. 2013 Dec 19;504(7480):401-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12870. Epub 2013 Dec 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics and National Center for Plant Gene Research (Beijing), Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China [2]. ; State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics and National Center for Plant Gene Research (Beijing), Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. ; VARI-SIMM Center, Center for Structure and Function of Drug Targets, CAS-Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China. ; Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Van Andel Research Institute, 333 Bostwick Avenue Northeast, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310006, China. ; 1] VARI-SIMM Center, Center for Structure and Function of Drug Targets, CAS-Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China [2] Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Van Andel Research Institute, 333 Bostwick Avenue Northeast, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336200" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cloning, Molecular ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Lactones/*antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry/metabolism ; Mutation/genetics ; Oryza/genetics/*metabolism ; Plant Growth Regulators/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Plant Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Proteolysis ; *Signal Transduction ; Ubiquitin/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-08-04
    Description: Enigmatic macrofossils of late Ediacaran age (580-541 million years ago) provide the oldest known record of diverse complex organisms on Earth, lying between the microbially dominated ecosystems of the Proterozoic and the Cambrian emergence of the modern biosphere. Among the oldest and most enigmatic of these macrofossils are the Rangeomorpha, a group characterized by modular, self-similar branching and a sessile benthic habit. Localized occurrences of large in situ fossilized rangeomorph populations allow fundamental aspects of their biology to be resolved using spatial point process techniques. Here we use such techniques to identify recurrent clustering patterns in the rangeomorph Fractofusus, revealing a complex life history of multigenerational, stolon-like asexual reproduction, interspersed with dispersal by waterborne propagules. Ecologically, such a habit would have allowed both for the rapid colonization of a localized area and for transport to new, previously uncolonized areas. The capacity of Fractofusus to derive adult morphology by two distinct reproductive modes documents the sophistication of its underlying developmental biology.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mitchell, Emily G -- Kenchington, Charlotte G -- Liu, Alexander G -- Matthews, Jack J -- Butterfield, Nicholas J -- England -- Nature. 2015 Aug 20;524(7565):343-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14646. Epub 2015 Aug 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ, UK. ; British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK. ; School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK. ; Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3AN, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26237408" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aquatic Organisms/*physiology ; *Fossils ; Newfoundland and Labrador ; Phylogeny ; *Reproduction, Asexual
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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