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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-07-06
    Description: Supermassive black holes in the nuclei of active galaxies expel large amounts of matter through powerful winds of ionized gas. The archetypal active galaxy NGC 5548 has been studied for decades, and high-resolution x-ray and ultraviolet (UV) observations have previously shown a persistent ionized outflow. An observing campaign in 2013 with six space observatories shows the nucleus to be obscured by a long-lasting, clumpy stream of ionized gas not seen before. It blocks 90% of the soft x-ray emission and causes simultaneous deep, broad UV absorption troughs. The outflow velocities of this gas are up to five times faster than those in the persistent outflow, and, at a distance of only a few light days from the nucleus, it may likely originate from the accretion disk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kaastra, J S -- Kriss, G A -- Cappi, M -- Mehdipour, M -- Petrucci, P-O -- Steenbrugge, K C -- Arav, N -- Behar, E -- Bianchi, S -- Boissay, R -- Branduardi-Raymont, G -- Chamberlain, C -- Costantini, E -- Ely, J C -- Ebrero, J -- Di Gesu, L -- Harrison, F A -- Kaspi, S -- Malzac, J -- De Marco, B -- Matt, G -- Nandra, K -- Paltani, S -- Person, R -- Peterson, B M -- Pinto, C -- Ponti, G -- Pozo Nunez, F -- De Rosa, A -- Seta, H -- Ursini, F -- de Vries, C P -- Walton, D J -- Whewell, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jul 4;345(6192):64-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1253787. Epub 2014 Jun 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Universiteit Utrecht, Post Office Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht, Netherlands. Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Post Office Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands. j.kaastra@sron.nl. ; Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. ; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica (IASF) Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy. ; SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands. Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK. ; Universite Grenoble Alpes, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), F-38000 Grenoble, France. CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France. ; Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Avenida Angamos 0610, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta, Chile. Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UK. ; Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. ; Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa, Israel. ; Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma, Italy. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, 16 Chemin d'Ecogia, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland. ; Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK. ; SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands. ; Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. ; SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands. European Space Astronomy Centre, Post Office Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid, Spain. ; Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Universite de Toulouse, Universite Paul Sabatier (UPS)-Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees (OMP), Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planelogie (IRAP), Toulouse, France. CNRS, IRAP, 9 Avenue colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France. ; Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching, Germany. ; 22 Impasse du Bois Joli, 74410 St. Jorioz, France. ; Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. ; Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK. ; Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Universitatsstrasse 150, 44801, Bochum, Germany. ; INAF/Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma, Italy. ; Research Center for Measurement in Advanced Science, Faculty of Science, Rikkyo University 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Department of Physics, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24994647" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-02-24
    Description: The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband x-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic speeds from the inner accretion disk, and its wide aperture suggests an effective coupling with the ambient gas. The outflow's kinetic power larger than 10(46) ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nardini, E -- Reeves, J N -- Gofford, J -- Harrison, F A -- Risaliti, G -- Braito, V -- Costa, M T -- Matzeu, G A -- Walton, D J -- Behar, E -- Boggs, S E -- Christensen, F E -- Craig, W W -- Hailey, C J -- Matt, G -- Miller, J M -- O'Brien, P T -- Stern, D -- Turner, T J -- Ward, M J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 20;347(6224):860-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1259202.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK. e.nardini@keele.ac.uk. ; Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK. Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA. ; Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze, Italy. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (LC), Italy. ; Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK. ; Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. ; Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel. ; Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Danmarks Tekniske Universitet Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark. ; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. ; Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA. ; Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma, Italy. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. ; Physics Department, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA. Eureka Scientific Inc., 2452 Delmer Street Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602, USA. ; Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25700515" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0168-9002
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0168-9002
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1436-6304
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1436-6304
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Astrophysics and space science 248 (1997), S. 199-206 
    ISSN: 1572-946X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We discuss the iron K line complex in NGC 1068. The line complex basically consists of three components, as previously reported. A new analysis of the ASCA data shows that cold reflection appears to dominate the observed X-ray emission above 4 keV based on the detection of ‘Compton shoulder’, a weak red wing of the 6.4 keV fluorescence iron K line, and a very flat continuum. The other two weaker lines at higher energies can be identified with FeXXV and FeXXVI and suggest an highly ionized X-ray mirror as well, although the line energies are systematically lower than those expected from the resonant lines, consistent with a redshift by 1.5%.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-02-09
    Description: Germ–soma differentiation is a hallmark of complex multicellular organisms, yet its origins are not well understood. Volvox carteri is a simple multicellular green alga that has recently evolved a simple germ–soma dichotomy with only two cell-types: large germ cells called gonidia and small terminally differentiated somatic cells. Here, we provide a comprehensive characterization of the gonidial and somatic transcriptomes of V. carteri to uncover fundamental differences between the molecular and metabolic programming of these cell-types. We found extensive transcriptome differentiation between cell-types, with somatic cells expressing a more specialized program overrepresented in younger, lineage-specific genes, and gonidial cells expressing a more generalist program overrepresented in more ancient genes that shared striking overlap with stem cell-specific genes from animals and land plants. Directed analyses of different pathways revealed a strong dichotomy between cell-types with gonidial cells expressing growth-related genes and somatic cells expressing an altruistic metabolic program geared toward the assembly of flagella, which support organismal motility, and the conversion of storage carbon to sugars, which act as donors for production of extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins whose secretion enables massive organismal expansion. V. carteri orthologs of diurnally controlled genes from C. reinhardtii, a single-celled relative, were analyzed for cell-type distribution and found to be strongly partitioned, with expression of dark-phase genes overrepresented in somatic cells and light-phase genes overrepresented in gonidial cells- a result that is consistent with cell-type programs in V. carteri arising by cooption of temporal regulons in a unicellular ancestor. Together, our findings reveal fundamental molecular, metabolic, and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie the origins of germ–soma differentiation in V. carteri and provide a template for understanding the acquisition of germ–soma differentiation in other multicellular lineages.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: The investigation of age-related changes in muscle microstructure between developmental and healthy adult mice may help us to understand the clinical features of early-onset muscle diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We investigated the evolution of mouse hind-limb muscle microstructure using diffusion imaging of in vivo and in vitro samples from both actively growing and mature mice. Mean apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles were determined as a function of diffusion time (Δ), age (7.5, 22 and 44 weeks) and diffusion gradient direction, applied parallel or transverse to the principal axis of the muscle fibres. We investigated a wide range of diffusion times with the goal of probing a range of diffusion lengths characteristic of muscle microstructure. We compared the diffusion time-dependent ADC of hind-limb muscles with histology. ADC was found to vary as a function of diffusion time in muscles at all stages of maturation. Muscle water diffusivity was higher in younger (7.5 weeks) than in adult (22 and 44 weeks) mice, whereas no differences were observed between the older ages. In vitro data showed the same diffusivity pattern as in vivo data. The highlighted differences in diffusion properties between young and mature muscles suggested differences in underlying muscle microstructure, which were confirmed by histological assessment. In particular, although diffusion was more restricted in older muscle, muscle fibre size increased significantly from young to adult age. The extracellular space decreased with age by only ~1%. This suggests that the observed diffusivity differences between young and adult muscles may be caused by increased membrane permeability in younger muscle associated with properties of the sarcolemma. In this study, we investigated hind-limb muscles of young growing and mature healthy mice using diffusion-weighted imaging protocols and histology. Imaging findings showed that muscle water diffusivity decreased with increasing mouse age both in vivo and in vitro . However, muscle fibre size was larger in older mice, whereas the extracellular matrix decreased with age. This suggests that muscle water diffusivity may be driven by different sarcolemma-associated properties between actively growing myofibres and adult myofibres in homeostasis.
    Print ISSN: 0952-3480
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1492
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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