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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-01-29
    Description: 'Orang-utan' is derived from a Malay term meaning 'man of the forest' and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orang-utan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orang-utan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orang-utan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orang-utan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe a primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orang-utan genome structure. Orang-utans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400,000 years ago, is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orang-utan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (N(e)) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral N(e) after the split, while Bornean N(e) declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new opportunities in evolutionary genomics, insights into hominid biology, and an extensive database of variation for conservation efforts.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060778/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060778/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Locke, Devin P -- Hillier, LaDeana W -- Warren, Wesley C -- Worley, Kim C -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Muzny, Donna M -- Yang, Shiaw-Pyng -- Wang, Zhengyuan -- Chinwalla, Asif T -- Minx, Pat -- Mitreva, Makedonka -- Cook, Lisa -- Delehaunty, Kim D -- Fronick, Catrina -- Schmidt, Heather -- Fulton, Lucinda A -- Fulton, Robert S -- Nelson, Joanne O -- Magrini, Vincent -- Pohl, Craig -- Graves, Tina A -- Markovic, Chris -- Cree, Andy -- Dinh, Huyen H -- Hume, Jennifer -- Kovar, Christie L -- Fowler, Gerald R -- Lunter, Gerton -- Meader, Stephen -- Heger, Andreas -- Ponting, Chris P -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Alkan, Can -- Chen, Lin -- Cheng, Ze -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Eichler, Evan E -- White, Simon -- Searle, Stephen -- Vilella, Albert J -- Chen, Yuan -- Flicek, Paul -- Ma, Jian -- Raney, Brian -- Suh, Bernard -- Burhans, Richard -- Herrero, Javier -- Haussler, David -- Faria, Rui -- Fernando, Olga -- Darre, Fleur -- Farre, Domenec -- Gazave, Elodie -- Oliva, Meritxell -- Navarro, Arcadi -- Roberto, Roberta -- Capozzi, Oronzo -- Archidiacono, Nicoletta -- Della Valle, Giuliano -- Purgato, Stefania -- Rocchi, Mariano -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Walker, Jerilyn A -- Ullmer, Brygg -- Batzer, Mark A -- Smit, Arian F A -- Hubley, Robert -- Casola, Claudio -- Schrider, Daniel R -- Hahn, Matthew W -- Quesada, Victor -- Puente, Xose S -- Ordonez, Gonzalo R -- Lopez-Otin, Carlos -- Vinar, Tomas -- Brejova, Brona -- Ratan, Aakrosh -- Harris, Robert S -- Miller, Webb -- Kosiol, Carolin -- Lawson, Heather A -- Taliwal, Vikas -- Martins, Andre L -- Siepel, Adam -- Roychoudhury, Arindam -- Ma, Xin -- Degenhardt, Jeremiah -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Gutenkunst, Ryan N -- Mailund, Thomas -- Dutheil, Julien Y -- Hobolth, Asger -- Schierup, Mikkel H -- Ryder, Oliver A -- Yoshinaga, Yuko -- de Jong, Pieter J -- Weinstock, George M -- Rogers, Jeffrey -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Wilson, Richard K -- G0501331/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- HG002238/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- MC_U137761446/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P01 AG022064/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM059290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002939/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079-08/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 27;469(7331):529-33. doi: 10.1038/nature09687.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Genome Center at Washington University, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, Saint Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. dlocke@wustl.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21270892" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Centromere/genetics ; Cerebrosides/metabolism ; Chromosomes ; Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Rearrangement/genetics ; Genetic Speciation ; *Genetic Variation ; Genetics, Population ; Genome/*genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Phylogeny ; Pongo abelii/*genetics ; Pongo pygmaeus/*genetics ; Population Density ; Population Dynamics ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-06-07
    Description: Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the most frequent leukaemia in adults in Western countries, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical presentation and evolution. Two major molecular subtypes can be distinguished, characterized respectively by a high or low number of somatic hypermutations in the variable region of immunoglobulin genes. The molecular changes leading to the pathogenesis of the disease are still poorly understood. Here we performed whole-genome sequencing of four cases of CLL and identified 46 somatic mutations that potentially affect gene function. Further analysis of these mutations in 363 patients with CLL identified four genes that are recurrently mutated: notch 1 (NOTCH1), exportin 1 (XPO1), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88) and kelch-like 6 (KLHL6). Mutations in MYD88 and KLHL6 are predominant in cases of CLL with mutated immunoglobulin genes, whereas NOTCH1 and XPO1 mutations are mainly detected in patients with unmutated immunoglobulins. The patterns of somatic mutation, supported by functional and clinical analyses, strongly indicate that the recurrent NOTCH1, MYD88 and XPO1 mutations are oncogenic changes that contribute to the clinical evolution of the disease. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of CLL combining whole-genome sequencing with clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes. It highlights the usefulness of this approach for the identification of clinically relevant mutations in cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3322590/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3322590/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Puente, Xose S -- Pinyol, Magda -- Quesada, Victor -- Conde, Laura -- Ordonez, Gonzalo R -- Villamor, Neus -- Escaramis, Georgia -- Jares, Pedro -- Bea, Silvia -- Gonzalez-Diaz, Marcos -- Bassaganyas, Laia -- Baumann, Tycho -- Juan, Manel -- Lopez-Guerra, Monica -- Colomer, Dolors -- Tubio, Jose M C -- Lopez, Cristina -- Navarro, Alba -- Tornador, Cristian -- Aymerich, Marta -- Rozman, Maria -- Hernandez, Jesus M -- Puente, Diana A -- Freije, Jose M P -- Velasco, Gloria -- Gutierrez-Fernandez, Ana -- Costa, Dolors -- Carrio, Anna -- Guijarro, Sara -- Enjuanes, Anna -- Hernandez, Lluis -- Yague, Jordi -- Nicolas, Pilar -- Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M -- Himmelbauer, Heinz -- Castillo, Ester -- Dohm, Juliane C -- de Sanjose, Silvia -- Piris, Miguel A -- de Alava, Enrique -- San Miguel, Jesus -- Royo, Romina -- Gelpi, Josep L -- Torrents, David -- Orozco, Modesto -- Pisano, David G -- Valencia, Alfonso -- Guigo, Roderic -- Bayes, Monica -- Heath, Simon -- Gut, Marta -- Klatt, Peter -- Marshall, John -- Raine, Keiran -- Stebbings, Lucy A -- Futreal, P Andrew -- Stratton, Michael R -- Campbell, Peter J -- Gut, Ivo -- Lopez-Guillermo, Armando -- Estivill, Xavier -- Montserrat, Emili -- Lopez-Otin, Carlos -- Campo, Elias -- 088340/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 093867/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jun 5;475(7354):101-5. doi: 10.1038/nature10113.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Instituto Universitario de Oncologia, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21642962" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Carrier Proteins/genetics ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Humans ; Karyopherins/genetics ; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/*genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation/*genetics ; Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/chemistry/genetics ; Receptor, Notch1/genetics ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/genetics ; Reproducibility of Results
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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