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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A method is described for the preparation of suspensions of small single cells for scanning electron microscopy by the critical point drying technique. This procedure offers the advantages of reliability, cheapness, versatility and simplicity and may therefore be useful to many workers in varied fields.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Ozone is both made and destroyed by photochemical reactions in the troposphere, the balance depending on the availability of nitrogen oxides and other gases, particularly hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Formation of ozone occurs through photolysis of nitrogen dioxide (formed via oxidation of ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1824-3096
    Keywords: Age at Death ; Palaeodemography ; Pubic Symphysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Reliable palaeodemographic reconstruction is dependent upon accurate determination of age at death in human skeletal remains. Two methods, Todd (Todd, 1920, 1921) and Suchey-Brooks (Katz & Suchey, 1986), which use morphological changes of theos pubis as an indicator of age at death, were applied to a sample of Central California Indians. Life tables were constructed and the two data sets were compared. Differences between the two data sets were evident when life expectancies, mean ages, and survivorship curves were compared. Because both methods were developed using male samples, only the male data were considered valid. In a comparison between the two male data sets it became apparent that the differences lie in the upper decades depending upon which method was used. In an attempt to rectify the difference in age ranges between the two methods, a conversion of Todd phases into equivalent Suchey-Brooks phases (Katz & Suchey, 1986) was employed. Applications and limitations of both methods are discussed and it is suggested that the Suchey-Brooks method is to be perferred.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 349 (1991), S. 404-406 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Here we present a time series of concurrent observations aimed at assessing the coherence between gaseous DMS and its presumed aerosol oxidation products, methanesulphonate (MSA) and non-sea-salt (n.s.s.) sulphate. In previous concurrent measurements of these three species during short-duration ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Chicken rolls were manufactured using ground dark fowl meat or mechanically deboned poultry meat as a binding substrate, sodium caseinate or soya isolate and a meat block that was mechanically tenderized or chunked. Effects of these treatments on yield, chemical composition, sensory and texture profile attributes were evaluated in this study. Inclusion of soya isolate increased the cook yield and improved color over sodium caseinate (P 〈 0.05). Likewise, rolls containing ground-dark fowl meat were lighter in color than those made with mechanically deboned poultry meat. Rolls made with mechanically deboned poultry meat had greater chewiness, while those made with sodium caseinate had greater cohesiveness. Texture profile analysis indicated that mechanical tenderization was the predominant factor in producing a softer and more springy chicken roll. Sensory evaluation revealed that mechanical tenderization decreased chewiness as compared to cubing (P 〈 0.05).
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 253 (1975), S. 632-634 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] By light microscopy, the first observable effect of CB on limpet haemocytes is collapse of the microspikes, apparently as a result of disruption of their supporting cores. An electron microscope study of the system (our unpublished work) confirms this by showing that CB causes rapid disappearance ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: photochemistry ; hydrogen peroxide ; ozone ; Cape Grim ; Tasmania
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The concentration of gas-phase peroxides has been measured almost continuously at the Cape Grim baseline station (41° S) over a period of 393 days (7702 h of on-line measurements) between February 1991 and March 1992. In unpolluted marine air a distinct seasonal cycle in concentration was evident, from a monthly mean value of〉1.4 ppbv in summer (December) to 〈0.2 ppbv in winter (July). In the summer months a distinct diurnal cycle in peroxides was also observed in clean marine air, with a daytime build-up in concentration and decay overnight. Both the seasonal and diurnal cycles of peroxides concentration were anticorrelated with ozone concentration, and were largely explicable using a simple photochemical box model of the marine boundary layer in which the central processes were daytime photolytic destruction of ozone, transfer of reactive oxygen into the peroxides under the low-NOx ambient conditions that favour self-reaction between peroxy radicals, and continuous heterogeneous removal of peroxides at the ocean surface. Additional factors affecting peroxides concentrations at intermediate timescales (days to a week) were a dependence on air mass origin, with air masses arriving at Cape Grim from higher latitudes having lower peroxides concentrations, a dependence on local wind speed, with higher peroxides concentrations at lower wind speeds, and a systematic decrease in peroxides concentration during periods of rainfall. Possible physical mechanisms for these synoptic scale dependencies are discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Biomass burning ; isoprene ; hydroxyl radical
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Information from a variety of sources, including an airborne field expedition in November 1985, is used to produce estimates of the annual emissions of some hydrocarbons from bushfires, and isoprene from trees, in tropical Australia. For the continent north of 23° S the annual bushfires (biomass burning) input was estimated, in units of Tg carbon, to be 2 TgC (uncertainty range 0.8–5 TgC), emitted predominantly during the May to October dryseason. Isoprene emissions during this period were estimated also to be 2 TgC (uncertainty range 0.5–8 TgC), but were estimated to be an order of magnitude higher during the November to April wet season, at a level of 23 TgC (uncertainty range 6–100 TgC). The large annual emission of isoprene over the tropical part of the Australian continent yields ppbv levels of isoprene measured at the surface in summertime. Isoprene reactivity with hydroxyl radical is such that at these concentrations isoprene must be a dominant factor in controlling the concentration of OH radical in the convective boundary layer. Simple arguments based on the convective velocity scale suggest that the shape of the isoprene vertical profile in November 1985 would be consistent with available data on the OH-isoprene reaction rate if OH concentration in the boundary layer averaged about 2.5×106 cm-3 over the middle part of the day.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Marine atmosphere ; Southern Ocean ; dimethylsulfide ; sulfur dioxide ; methanesulfonate ; non-sea-salt sulfate ; marine aerosol ; vertical distributions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Vertical distributions of dimethylsulfide (DMS), sulfur dioxide (SO2), aerosol methane-sulfonate (MSA), non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO4 2-), and other aerosol ions were measured in maritime air west of Tasmania (Australia) during December 1986. A few cloudwater and rainwater samples were also collected and analyzed for major anions and cations. DMS concentrations in the mixed layer (ML) were typically between 15–60 ppt (parts per trillion, 10−12; 24 ppt=1 nmol m−3 (20°C, 1013 hPa)) and decreased in the free troposphere (FT) to about 〈1–2.4 ppt at 3 km. One profile study showed elevated DMS concentrations at cloud level consistent with turbulent transport (‘cloud pumping’) of air below convective cloud cells. In another case, a diel variation of DMS was observed in the ML. Our data suggest that meteorological rather than photochemical processes were responsible for this behavior. Based on model calculations we estimate a DMS lifetime in the ML of 0.9 days and a DMS sea-to-air flux of 2–3 μmol m−2 d−1. These estimates pertain to early austral summer conditions and southern mid-ocean latitudes. Typical MSA concentrations were 11 ppt in the ML and 4.7–6.8 ppt in the FT. Sulfur-dioxide values were almost constant in the ML and the lower FT within a range of 4–22 ppt between individual flight days. A strong increase of the SO2 concentration in the middle FT (5.3 km) was observed. We estimate the residence time of SO2 in the ML to be about 1 day. Aqueous-phase oxidation in clouds is probably the major removal process for SO2. The corresponding removal rate is estimated to be a factor of 3 larger than the rate of homogeneous oxidation of SO2 by OH. Model calculations suggest that roughly two-thirds of DMS in the ML are converted to SO2 and one-third to MSA. On the other hand, MSA/nss-SO4 2- mole ratios were significantly higher compared to values previously reported for other ocean areas suggesting a relatively higher production of MSA from DMS oxidation over the Southern Ocean. Nss-SO4 2- profiles were mostly parallel to those of MSA, except when air was advected partially from continental areas (Africa, Australia). In contrast to SO2, nss-SO4 2- values decreased significantly in the middle FT. NH4 +/nss-SO4 2- mole ratios indicate that most non-sea-salt sulfate particles in the ML were neutralized by ammonium.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Rainwater acidity ; rainwater composition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract During the summer of 1980–81, a rudimentary form of wet-only event sampling was employed to collect a total of 294 rainwater samples at 12 sites spread across the metropolitan region of Sydney, Australia's largest city. From the samples were determined conductivity, pH, ammonium, chloride and nitrate ion concentrations as well as deposited water volume. Supplementary data consisting of city-wide averaged SO2, NO2, NO, and O3 concentrations and 950 mb wind speed and direction were obtained for times coinciding with the period during which each event occurred. The pH of rainwater upwind of the city and unaffected by urban/industrial emissions was found to be usually ≥5, whereas the volume-weighted mean pH of all the metropolitan samples was 4.4, indicating that local emissions significantly increased rainwater acidity in the near field. Time available for conversion of precursors to acids averaged 1–2 h only. Considerable day-to-day variability in rainwater composition was observed. Factors identified as contributing to this variability included precursor gas concentration, wind speed, wind direction, amount of water deposited per event and possibly time of day. These results show that physical/meteorological factors cannot be excluded from consideration if variance in rainwater composition data is to be explained.
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