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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Sites of binding of eight different lectins (LTA, UEA I, WGA, SBA, DBA, CON A, PNA, RCA I) to cat submandibular gland were studied after exposure of tissue sections to sialidase, α-fucosidase, β-galactosidase, α-mannosidase, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase. All lectins were affected by enzymatic predigestion and the labeling of individual lectins was highly dependent upon the glycosidase used to pretreat the sections. Glycoconjugates of demilunar, acinar and ductal cells exhibited a different composition of terminal sequences. For example, fucose proved to form the disaccharide fucose-galactose in demilunar and acinar cells, whereas it was present with the sequence fucose-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine in striated duct cells. Sialic acid participated both to the terminal sequence sialic acid-galactose and sialic acid-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine either in demilunar or in ductal cells. Lectin labeling combined with glycosidase digestion was also helpful in verifying the influence of neighbouring oligosaccharides on the affinity of lectins for the respective sugars.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Kidney ; Kidney neoplasms ; CT ; Fat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The differential diagnosis of renal masses containing fatty foci is limited to a small number of well-defined tumors, angiomyolipoma being the most frequent. In recent years clear cell carcinomas with intratumoral fatty foci have been reported, due to either entrapment of local fat or to regressive adipose metaplasia. Demonstration of focal calcifications is a valuable sign, being relatively common in carcinomas while rare in more benign lesions. We report a case of a foreign-body granuloma of the kidney, containing both calcifications and foci of fat. The value of this case, in our opinion, is that it demonstrates that detection of the previously mentioned features in a renal mass does not necessarily imply a presumptive diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Bronchial carcinoids ; Different types ; Cells of origin ; Ultrastructure ; Histology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Seven of eleven bronchial carcinoids investigated showed cells with small granules resembling P cells which have already been described in human fetal and adult lung; two of these P cell tumours showed distinctive paraganglioid features. One tumour showed peculiar ultrastructural findings resembling closely those previously reported by Black (1969) in a so called “pulmonary oncocytoma”. Three remaining cases showed large secretory granules resembling those of type 3 cells already described by Hage (1973 b) in bronchial carcinoids; one of these tumours produced large amounts of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT). It is concluded that, on cytological grounds, at least two types of tumours can be distinguished among bronchial carcinoids, i.e. P cell and type 3 cell tumours. Moreover, two varieties of P cell carcinoids have been recognized, showing either the less frequent and more distinctive paraganglioid structure or the more common trabecular structure.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Few controlled studies assessing choice and duration of antibiotic therapy for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth are available.Aim : To assess efficacy, safety and tolerability of different doses of rifaximin, a broad spectrum non-absorbable antibiotic, for intestinal bacterial overgrowth eradication.Methods : We enrolled 90 consecutive patients affected by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was based on the occurrence of a rise of H2 values 〉12 p.p.m. above the basal value after 50 g glucose ingestion. Patients were randomized in three 7-day treatment groups: rifaximin 600 mg/day (group 1); rifaximin 800 mg/day (group 2) and rifaximin 1200 mg/day (group 3). Glucose breath test was reassessed 1 month after the end of therapy. Compliance to the treatment and incidence of side-effects were also evaluated.Results : No drop-outs were observed in the three groups. Glucose breath test normalization rate was significantly higher in group 3 (60%) with respect to group 1 (17%; P 〈 0.001) and group 2 (27%, P 〈 0.01). No significant differences in patient compliance and incidence of side-effects were found among groups.Conclusions : Higher doses of rifaximin lead to a significant gain in terms of therapeutic efficacy in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth eradication without increasing the incidence of side-effects.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and sugar malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) may play a role in irritable bowel syndrome. The lactulose breath test is a reliable and non-invasive test for the diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The lactose, fructose and sorbitol hydrogen breath tests are widely used to detect specific sugar malabsorption.Aim : To assess the extent to which small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may influence the results of hydrogen sugar breath tests in irritable bowel syndrome patients.Methods : We enrolled 98 consecutive irritable bowel syndrome patients. All subjects underwent hydrogen lactulose, lactose, fructose and sorbitol hydrogen breath tests. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth patients were treated with 1-week course of antibiotics. All tests were repeated 1 month after the end of therapy.Results : A positive lactulose breath test was found in 64 of 98 (65%) subjects; these small intestinal bacterial overgrowth patients showed a significantly higher prevalence of positivity to the lactose breath test (P 〈 0.05), fructose breath test (P 〈 0.01) and sorbitol breath test (P 〈 0.01) when compared with the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth-negatives. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth eradication, as confirmed by negative lactulose breath test, caused a significant reduction in lactose, fructose and sorbitol breath tests positivity (17% vs. 100%, 3% vs. 62%, and 10% vs. 71% respectively: P 〈 0.0001).Conclusions : In irritable bowel syndrome patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, sugar breath tests may be falsely abnormal. Eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth normalizes sugar breath tests in the majority of patients. Testing for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth should be performed before other sugar breath tests tests to avoid sugar malabsorption misdiagnosis.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Hyperhomocysteinaemia is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. It is often related to low levels of vitamin B12 and/or folate, enzymatic co-factors of methionine metabolism. Atrophic gastritis, often caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, may impair vitamin absorption.Aim : To assess whether the presence of atrophic gastritis is associated with hyperhomocysteinaemia via deficiency of its vitamin co-factors.Methods : Thirty-one patients with atrophic gastritis were recruited. The control group consisted of 28 patients with non-atrophic gastritis, matched with patients for sex, age and body mass index. The presence and degree of gastric atrophy were assessed by histology. H. pylori infection was assessed by histology/serology. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folates.Results : Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that atrophic gastritis (odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–25.26; χ2 = 5.2; P = 0.01) and low vitamin B12 (odds ratio, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–22.08; χ2 = 3.6; P 〈 0.05) were both predictors of hyperhomocysteinaemia. None of the other variables considered in the analysis, including H. pylori status, showed a significant association with hyperhomocysteinaemia.Conclusions : The present study suggests that atrophic gastritis, rather than H. pylori infection per se, may be a contributing factor to hyperhomocysteinaemia, possibly via vitamin B12 malabsorption.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1590-3478
    Keywords: Cerebral mycosis ; mycotic infection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Sommario Le micosi cerebrali sono affezioni rare, difficili da diagnosticare, ma tali da non sfuggire facilmente all'esame autoptico. Noi riferiamo i dati clinici e patologici di quattro pazienti che avevano presentato crisi epilettiche e sintomatologia psichiatrica. Per nessuno era stata posta diagnosi esatta. I granuli actinomicotici in due pazienti ed i filamenti dell'Aspergillo nei restanti furono scoperti nel corso dell'indagine istopatologica di routine. Due dei pazienti avevano circa vent'anni e sembravano godere di buona salute. A nostro avviso la possibilità di una infezione micotica andrebbe sempre tenuta presente, anche quando non sia il caso di pazienti nei quali un abbassamento dei cosidetti poteri di difesa dell'organismo sia dato per scontato. È postulabile che vi siano dei disordini latenti a carico della immunità cellulomediata. Per questo motivo riterremmo importante compiere indagini immunologiche su questo versante davanti a processi infettivi endocranici ad agente eziologico incerto.
    Notes: Abstract Cerebral mycosis is a rare condition, difficult to diagnose in life, but is not easily missed at postmortem examination. We report clinical and pathological findings in four patients with long duration prodromes, seizures and psychiatric symptoms. All of them had been misdiagnosed. Actinomycotic granules in two and Aspergillus filaments in the other patients were ascertained at histological examination. Two of the patients were in their twenties and apparently healthy. We suggest that the possibility of mycotic infection should be considered even in cases where no lowering of the body's defences can be postulated. Cell mediated immunity defects may be assumed as underlying these infections. Therefore we would suggest the importance of immunological tests for type IV immune responsiveness in all intracranial infective processes of undefined etiology.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Levofloxacin has been shown to be effective in Helicobacter pylori eradication. Two 10-day levofloxacin-based triple therapies were compared with standard 7- and 14-day quadruple regimens in second-line treatment.Methods : Two hundred and eighty consecutive patients who failed to respond to standard triple therapy (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, rabeprazole) were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) levofloxacin 500 mg o.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.d., rabeprazole 20 mg b.d. for 10 days (LAR, n = 70); (2) levofloxacin 500 mg o.d., tinidazole 500 mg b.d., rabeprazole 20 mg b.d. for 10 days (LTR, n = 70); (3) tetracycline 500 mg q.d.s., metronidazole 500 mg t.d.s., bismuth salt 120 mg q.d.s., rabeprazole 20 mg b.d. for 7 days (7TMBR, n = 70); and (4) for 14 days (14TMBR, n = 70). Helicobacter pylori status and side-effects were assessed 6 weeks after treatment.Results : The eradication rate was 94% in the LAR group and 90% in the LTR group in both intention-to-treat and per protocol analyses. Helicobacter pylori eradication was achieved in 63 and 69% of the 7TMBR group and in 69 and 80% of the 14TMBR group in intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis, respectively. Side-effects were significantly lower in the LAR and LTR groups than in the 14TMBR group.Conclusion : Ten-day levofloxacin-based therapies are better than standard quadruple regimens as second-line option for H. pylori eradication.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  Studies assessing the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome gave contrasting results. Differences in criteria to define irritable bowel syndrome patients and methods to assess small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may explain different results. Moreover, no data exist on small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in a significant population of healthy non-irritable bowel syndrome subjects.Aim:  To assess the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth by glucose breath test in patients with irritable bowel syndrome symptoms with respect to a consistent control group.Methods:  Consecutive patients with irritable bowel syndrome according to Rome II criteria were enrolled. The control population consisted of 102 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects without irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. All subjects underwent glucose breath test. A peak of H2 values 〉10 p.p.m above the basal value after 50 g of glucose ingestion was considered suggestive of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.Results:  A total of 65 irritable bowel syndrome patients and 102 healthy controls were enrolled. Positivity to glucose breath test was found in 31% of irritable bowel syndrome patients with respect to 4% in the control group, the difference between groups resulting statistically significant (OR: 2.65; 95% CI: 3.5–33.7, P 〈 0.00001).Conclusions:  The present case–control study showed an epidemiological association between irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Placebo-controlled small intestinal bacterial overgrowth-eradication studies are necessary to clarify the real impact of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular medicine 16 (1937), S. 996-998 
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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