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  • 1
    Keywords: GENE-EXPRESSION ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; BINDING ; C-JUN ; DNA methylation ; MAMMALIAN-CELLS ; TRANSFORMATION ; ENHANCER ; FOS ; beta-galactosidase
    Abstract: The upstream regulatory region (URR) of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) harbors transcriptional promoter and enhancer elements which are thought to determine the cell-type specificity of the virus. In order to study the regulation of HPV-18 expression in vivo, we constructed transgenic mice carrying the bacterial lacZ gene under the control of the HPV-18 URR. Analysis of beta-galactosidase activity by histochemical staining of tissue sections of four independent transgenic mice showed that the viral promoter was specifically active in epithelial cells within a variety of organs (e.g., tongue, ovary, uterus, testis, and small intestine). Very strong staining was observed in newborn transgenic mice in contrast to a weak activity found during fetal life. Determination of beta-galactosidase activity in crude extracts from tissues of three lines of transgenic mice proved to be a useful tool for a quantitative analysis of transgene expression. In mice from two different transgenic lines treated with dexamethasone such measurements revealed a biphasic effect of the hormone on the activity of the enzyme in the stratified epithelium of the tongue (transient increase followed by a decrease). Northern (RNA) blot analysis showed similar changes in beta-galactosidase mRNA in that tissue. Treatment with tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) led to a twofold increase in both enzymatic activity and mRNA levels. Finally, combined treatments with dexamethasone and TPA showed that both factors interfered with each other in their respective effects on transgene expression, suggesting that a cross-talk mechanism between transcription factors could be involved in the regulation of the HPV-18 URR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 8411377
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  • 2
    Abstract: We have generated transgenic mice carrying the URR of the human papillomavirus type 11 ligated in front of the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase coding region sequence. Using X-Gal staining to demonstrate beta-galactosidase production, we observed a hair-specific transcription of the reporter gene. This transcription was limited to the epithelial cells of the hair bulge region. The transgene was developmentally regulated, as no LacZ staining was demonstrated during embryogenesis and specific staining was first observed after birth. Surprisingly, dexamethasone and ultraviolet B, but not phorbol myristate acetate or progesterone treatment of the animals resulted in an increase in number and intensity of hair follicles expressing the reporter gene.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 10383735
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  • 3
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of proteolytic enzymes on mice hair follicles, particularly on cells of the bulge area regarded as follicle stem cells. BACKGROUND: Previous application by iontophoresis of proteolytic enzymes on guinea pig skin resulted in degenerative effects on hair follicles and the hypothesis was proposed that some of the affected cells could be stem cells. METHODS: To mark putative stem cells transgenic mice were produced carrying the lac-Z gene fused to the Upstream Regulatory Region (URR) of Human Papilloma Virus 11 (HPV11), as they express this gene specifically in the cells of the bulge area. Chymotrypsin and papain were applied on skin by iontophoresis, trypsin in the form of liposomes. RESULTS: Enzyme application, both by electrophoresis and as liposomes, led to intense degenerative effects of the hair follicle, such as detachment of the inner root sheath, cystic dilation of the hair shaft and presence of epithelial cells within the lumen. Some of these cells represent hair follicle stem cells expressing beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), having been detached from the bulge area as a result of enzyme treatment, implying impairment of their function.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 10565627
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1468-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To study the effects of proteolytic enzymes on mice hair follicles, particularly on cells of the bulge area regarded as follicle stem cells.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉BackgroundPrevious application by iontophoresis of proteolytic enzymes on guinea pig skin resulted in degenerative effects on hair follicles and the hypothesis was proposed that some of the affected cells could be stem cells.〈section xml:id="abs1-4"〉〈title type="main"〉MethodsTo mark putative stem cells transgenic mice were produced carrying the lac-Z gene fused to the Upstream Regulatory Region (URR) of Human Papilloma Virus 11 (HPV11), as they express this gene specifically in the cells of the bulge area. Chymotrypsin and papain were applied on skin by iontophoresis, trypsin in the form of liposomes.〈section xml:id="abs1-5"〉〈title type="main"〉ResultsEnzyme application, both by electrophoresis and as liposomes, led to intense degenerative effects of the hair follicle, such as detachment of the inner root sheath, cystic dilation of the hair shaft and presence of epithelial cells within the lumen. Some of these cells represent hair follicle stem cells expressing β-galactosidase (β-gal), having been detached from the bulge area as a result of enzyme treatment, implying impairment of their function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1435-2451
    Keywords: Carina ; Surgical reconstruction ; Children Adolescents
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Während die segmentale Resektion der Trachea und Bronchien im Erwachsenenalter weitge hend standardisiert ist, sind Strikturen der Carina im Kindesalter selten und ihre Behandlung herausfordernd. Seit 1980 wurde in 8 Patienten im Alter von 8–19 Jahren die Carina operativ rekonstruiert. Die Indikation waren Tumoren in 5 und nicht-neoplastische Prozesse in 3 Fällen. In 3 Patienten mit Tumor (2) und Mediastinalfibrose (1) wurden Carina- und Lungenresektion kombiniert durchgeführt. Prinzipien der operativen Behandlung sind die vollständige Resektion mit intraoperativer Klärung der Resektionsgrenzen in Tumoren, in Kindern die besondere Beachtung einer addquaten Mobilisation des verbleibenden Luftwegs unter Vermeidung unzuverldssiger Anastomosenspannung und die Wahl von Anästhesieverfahren, die eine sichere Operation und frühzeitige Extubation erlauben. Ein Patient (12,5%) starb nach komplexer Atemwegrekonstruktion bei ausgedehnter Mediastinalfibrose. Malazie in der verbliebenen Trachea in einem Patienten mit Postpneumonektomiesyndrom erforderte eine erfolgreiche Zweitresektion. In einem Beobachtungszeitraum von 5–132 Monaten (im Mittel 62 Monate) blieben 7 Patienten frei von einer Striktur der Anastomose und Tumorrezidiv mit erwarteter Erhaltung der Lungenfunktion. Die bronchoskopische Nachschau in 5 Patienten 6 Monate bis 11 Jahre nach der Operation zeigte ein strikturfreies Wachstum des Lumens. Die Rekonstruktion der Carina ist in Kindern gelegentlich erforderlich, i. allg. erfolgreich und nicht von späten Problemen an der Anastomose gefolgt.
    Notes: Abstract While resection of tracheobronchial segments has become a standard operation in adults, lesions of the carina in children are rare and their treatment is technically more demanding. Since 1980, 8 patients aged 8 to 19 years underwent surgical reconstruction of the carina. The indications were tumors in 5 and non-neoplastic lesions in 3. In 3 patients with tumor (2) and advanced histoplasmosis (1), resection of the carina was combined with parenchymal resection. The principles of operative repair include complete resection, with frozen section confirmation in tumors, particular emphasis on adequate mobilization of the airway in children to reduce anastomosic tension, and use of anesthetic techniques that facilitate early extubation. One patient (12.5%) died after complex airway reconstruction for extensive mediastinal fibrosis. Residual malacia in a patient with postpneumonectomy syndrome required successful re-resection. Seven patients remain free of anastomotic stricture and tumor recurrence during a mean follow-up of 62 months (range 5 to 132 months), with expected preservation of lung function. Late bronchoscopy in 5 patients 6 months to 11 years after operation demonstrated growth of the luminal diameter and patent anastomoses. Carinal reconstruction in children is occasionally required, succeeds in general, and does not result in late problems at the anastomosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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