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  • 1
    ISSN: 0300-9084
    Keywords: blood monocytes ; platelet-derived growth factor ; tissue fibrosis ; tissue repair
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Immunopathology of bile ducts ; T lymphozyte subtyping ; Epithelial cells as immune targets
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are chronic autoimmune-mediated diseases of the biliary tree, resulting in a loss of bile ducts. There are morphological features that clearly distinguish them from each other: in PBC, there is overt destruction of the bile ducts with disruption of the basement membrane; in PSC there is abundant periductular fibrosis with shrinkage and subsequent loss of the bile ducts. In order to see if the disparate histopathology is paralleled by different immunohistology we looked at a panel of epitopes on bile duct epithelia especially to see if biliary epithelial cells may present as targets for cell mediated immune respone. In PBC bile duct epithelial cells mostly expressed CD58 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3), CD80 (B7 BB1), and CD95 (Fas). In PSC, however, these epitopes were only expressed in a few examples to a lower degree. The respective effector T lymphocytes were positive for CD2 and CD28. Subtyping of the lymphocytes in the liver tissue further showed a predominance of CD4 positive T cells over CD8 cells up to 2-to-1 in both diseases. Determination of lymphocytes by cytokines to Th1 or Th2 subtype showed a majority of Th1 lymphocytes in PBC and PSC. We conclude that in PBC bile duct epithelial cells may display features of target cells of a T cell-mediated immune reaction with the Th1 cells predominating. In PSC other mechanisms of bile duct loss may play a role, since in this disease the majority of cells lack essential epitopes that constitute targets of cell mediated immunity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Cytokines ; T helper subsets ; interleukin-2 ; interferon-γ ; interleukin-1 ; tumour necrosis factor ; prediabetes ; identical twins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To determine whether cytokines could have a role in the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), we measured serum levels of cytokines derived from T helper 1 (interleukin-2 and interferon-γ), T helper 2 (interleukin-4 and inter-leukin-10) lymphocytes and macrophages (tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 α and interleukin-1 Β) in patients before and after the onset of IDDM. Recently diagnosed IDDM patients had significantly higher levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 α than patients with either long-standing IDDM, non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), Graves' disease, or control subjects (p〈0.05 for all). Compared with control subjects, patients with long-standing IDDM and those with NIDDM had higher interleukin-2 and tumour necrosis factor-α levels (p〈0.01 for all). Interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 were detectable in sera of patients with Graves' disease only, while interleukin-1 Β was not detectable in the serum of any control or test subject. To investigate whether high cytokine levels precede the onset of IDDM, we studied 28 non-diabetic identical co-twins of patients with IDDM, followed-up prospectively for up to 6 years after the diagnosis of the index. Levels of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 α were elevated above the normal range more frequently in the eight twins who developed diabetes than in those 20 who did not (p〈0.005). Analysis of T helper 1 and T helper 2 profiles of the twin groups did not reveal a clear difference between prediabetic twins and twins remaining non-diabetic. These results support the notion that T helper 1 lymphocytes may play a role in the development of IDDM. This is associated with release of macrophage-derived cytokines, which is also a feature of the prediabetic period. The lack of evidence of a dominant T helper 1 profile of cytokine release before diabetes onset suggests that additional events, activating this arm of the cellular immune response, are required in the immediate prediabetic period.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1399-3038
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The production of the cytokines IL-l-α, IL-l-β, IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ was measured by a sensitive immunological assay in stimulated whole blood cell cultures from 52 healthy children (33 aged from 1 to 9 years and 19 aged between 10 and 17 years) and 67 healthy adults. When the higher absolute mononuclear cell counts in the peripheral blood samples of the children were taken into account, the relative production of all measured cytokines was lower in the cell cultures of the children than of the adults. In the group of the younger children (〈 10 years) the differences were significant for all measured cytokines. In the group of older children (〉 = 10 years) the values were higher than in the younger children but lower than in adults. The findings indicate that the cellular immunological competence is or can be reduced in children and adolescents, particularly young children below 10 years of age. There seems to be a gradual development of cytokine production during childhood.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The natural killer (NK) cell activity of mice in the peritoneal cavity is very low or undetectable and testing peritoneal NK cells is a useful model for studying the influence of activating substances upon local injection. Injection of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) at doses of 10–200 ng caused a marked activation of NK cell activity which was maximal after 24 h and declined rapidly on day 2. A similar effect was observed when interferons alpha and beta were injected, and there were additive results when interferon was injected together with TNF. The NK cell nature of the effector cells activated by TNF was substantiated by the finding that previous injection with anti-asialo GM 1 antibody prevented activation. Interferon could not be detected in the peritoneal wash fluid after injection of TNF suggesting interferon-independent activation. In further experiments after i.p. injection of TNF peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) only killed YAC-1 targets in a 4-h assay. There was no additional killing in an 18-h assay towards neither YAC-1 cells or P815 cells, suggesting that macrophages were not involved. Furthermore TNF was also active in vitro by activating NK cells in isolated human peripheral blood cells. However in the PECs stimulated in vitro no significant induction of cytotoxic capacities by TNF was measured. Our data suggest that the action of TNF is not restricted to the lysis of tumor cells but can also induce immunological properties in the host defense against virus infections and neoplasms.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0711
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Fetales Fibronektin eignet sich zur Abschätzung eines erhöhten Frühgeburtsrisikos bei Tokolysepatientinnen, v.a. auch im Verlauf. THF und IL6 im Fruchtwasser geben Hinweis auf eine subklinische Infektion bei Patientinnen mit vorzeitigem Blasensprung.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Soluble TNF receptors ; TNFα ; Immunotherapy ; IL-2 ; IFNα
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Eleven metastatic cancer patients were studied during three different regimens of immunotherapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and/or interferon α (IFNα): group A received 4 days of IL-2 i.a. infusion (n=3), group B IFNα s.c. during 5 days (n=4), followed on day 3 by 5 days of a continuous IL-2 i.v. infusion, and group C had 4 days of IL-2 i.v. infusion together with s.c. IFNα on days 1 and 4 (n=4). Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFR) p55 and p75 and TNFα concentrations in serum were analyzed before therapy and daily during 8 days of the first therapy cycle. sTNFR was measured by radioimmunoassay. sTNFR p55 increased in all patient groups from a baseline value of 5.2±0.9 ng/ml to a maximum of 13.6±1.2 ng/ml by days 3–4 (P=0.003). sTNFR p75 increased from 7.6±1.1 ng/ml to peak values of 30.1±2.6 ng/ml in groups A and B (P=0.02). In group C the sTNFR p75 response was weak (NS). In group B, the increase of both p55 and p75 occurred only after addition of IL-2 to IFNα. TNFα increased weakly during treatment with IFNα alone (group B); it rose strongly during IL-2 and the combined treatment (groups A-C) from 8±2 pg/ml to 115±13 pg/ml (P=0.003). In group B, it reached the maximum 24 h after addition of IL-2 to IFNα and decreased thereafter. there was a significant relationship between TNFα and sTNFR p55 or sTNFR p75 in groups A and C, (P=0.001), but not in group B. Group C was also investigated during the third therapy cycle. The increase of sTNFR p75 was stronger (P=0.01) and that of TNFα weaker than in the first cycle; the sTNFR p55 response was similar in both cycles. In conclusion sTNFR p55 and p75 are rapidly induced during IL-2 and IL-2+IFNα treatment, the increase of sTNF receptors parallels or exceeds that of TNFα and may influence the immunomodulatory effects of TNFα during cytokine therapy.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words: Soluble TNF receptors – TNFα– Immunotherapy – IL-2 – IFNα
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Eleven metastatic cancer patients were studied during three different regimens of immunotherapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and/or interferon α (IFNα): group A received 4 days of IL-2 i. a. infusion (n = 3), group B IFNα s.c. during 5 days (n = 4), followed on day 3 by 5 days of a continuous IL-2 i. v. infusion, and group C had 4 days of IL-2 i. v. infusion together with s. c. IFNα on days 1 and 4 (n = 4). Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFR) p55 and p75 and TNFα concentrations in serum were analyzed before therapy and daily during 8 days of the first therapy cycle. sTNFR was measured by radioimmunoassay. sTNFR p55 increased in all patient groups from a baseline value of 5.2±0.9 ng/ml to a maximum of 13.6±1.2 ng/ml by days 3 – 4 (P = 0.003). sTNFR p75 increased from 7.6±1.1 ng/ml to peak values of 30.1±2.6 ng/ml in groups A and B (P = 0.02). In group C the sTNFR p75 response was weak (NS). In group B, the increase of both p55 and p75 occurred only after addition of IL-2 to IFNα. TNFα increased weakly during treatment with IFNα alone (group B); it rose strongly during IL-2 and the combined treatment (groups A – C) from 8±2 pg/ml to 115±13 pg/ml (P = 0.003). In group  B,  it  reached  the  maximum  24 h  after  addition  of IL-2 to IFNα and decreased thereafter. There was a significant relationship between TNFα and sTNFR p55 or sTNFR p75 in groups A and C, (P = 0.001), but not in group B. Group C was also investigated during the third therapy cycle. The increase of sTNFR p75 was stronger (P = 0.01) and that of TNFα weaker than in the first cycle; the sTNFR p55 response was similar in both cycles. In conclusion sTNFR p55 and p75 are rapidly induced during IL-2 and IL-2+ IFNα treatment, the increase of sTNF receptors parallels or exceeds that of TNFα and may influence the immunomodulatory effects of TNFα during cytokine therapy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Whole blood cell cultures ; Cytokine production ; Urogenital carcinomas ; Immune competence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The production of the cytokines interferon γ (IFN γ), interleukin-1 α (IL-1 α) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) was investigated in the mitogen-stimulated whole blood cell culture media from 51 patients with urinary bladder carcinomas, 52 patients with renal carcinomas, 31 patients with prostatic carcinomas and 360 healthy controls. The cytokines were measured 4 days after induction by a sensitive enzymo-immunological assay. In the blood cell culture supernatants of the patients with urinary bladder carcinomas significancy lower levels of IFN γ (P≤0.001), IL-2 (P≤0.001) and TNFα (P≤0.05) were found as compared to the controls. Blood cells of patients with renal carcinomas had lower production of IFN γ (P≤0.01), IL-2 (P≤0.001) and IL-1α (P≤0.01), whereas the values of the total group of patients with prostatic carcinomas were not significantly different from those of the controls. Lymphocyte and monocyte counts were almost identical in the control and all tumor patient groups. When the patients with renal carcinomas and prostatic carcinomas were analyzed according to their different clinical stages we could show a gradual depression of the IFN-γ levels, which was related to tumor burden.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Conclusions One-step immunological incubation in enzyme immunoassays is a means of combining good performance characteristics with considerable savings in both handling time and disposables and a lesser chance of technical errors due to its simplicity. However, it must be emphasized that application of this principle has to be proven in each special case.
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