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  • 1
    Keywords: NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA ; NATURAL-KILLER-CELLS ; HUMAN DENDRITIC CELLS ; TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS ; COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR ; ISOLATED LIMB PERFUSION ; REGULATORY T-CELLS ; PHASE-I TRIAL ; DEPENDENT CELLULAR CYTOTOXICITY ; IMMUNOSTIMULATORY MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES
    Abstract: During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into "passive" and "active" based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25537519
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  • 3
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, the molecular machinery that underlies autophagic responses has been characterized with ever increasing precision in multiple model organisms. Moreover, it has become clear that autophagy and autophagy-related processes have profound implications for human pathophysiology. However, considerable confusion persists about the use of appropriate terms to indicate specific types of autophagy and some components of the autophagy machinery, which may have detrimental effects on the expansion of the field. Driven by the overt recognition of such a potential obstacle, a panel of leading experts in the field attempts here to define several autophagy-related terms based on specific biochemical features. The ultimate objective of this collaborative exchange is to formulate recommendations that facilitate the dissemination of knowledge within and outside the field of autophagy research.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28596378
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  • 4
  • 5
    Abstract: The goal of cancer immunotherapy is to establish new or boost pre-existing anticancer immune responses that eradicate malignant cells while generating immunological memory to prevent disease relapse. Over the past few years, immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that block co-inhibitory receptors on immune effectors cells - such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, best known as PD-1) - or their ligands - such as CD274 (best known as PD-L1) - have proven very successful in this sense. As a consequence, many of such immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) have already entered the clinical practice for various oncological indications. Considerable attention is currently being attracted by a second group of immunomodulatory mAbs, which are conceived to activate co-stimulatory receptors on immune effector cells. Here, we discuss the mechanisms of action of these immunostimulatory mAbs and summarize recent progress in their preclinical and clinical development.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29209572
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  • 6
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CELL ; DIFFERENTIATION ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; CELL-DEATH ; FUSION ; FRANCE ; BAX ; molecular biology ; molecular ; ENGLAND ; ADENINE-NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCATOR ; FISSION ; PROTEIN VMIA
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18174900
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Immunotherapy is revolutionizing the clinical management of multiple tumors. However, only a fraction of patients with cancer responds to immunotherapy, and currently available immunotherapeutic agents are expensive and generally associated with considerable toxicity, calling for the identification of robust predictive biomarkers. The overall genomic configuration of malignant cells, potentially favoring the emergence of immunogenic tumor neoantigens, as well as specific mutations that compromise the ability of the immune system to recognize or eradicate the disease have been associated with differential sensitivity to immunotherapy in preclinical and clinical settings. Along similar lines, the type, density, localization, and functional orientation of the immune infiltrate have a prominent impact on anticancer immunity, as do features of the tumor microenvironment linked to the vasculature and stroma, and systemic factors including the composition of the gut microbiota. On the basis of these considerations, we outline the hallmarks of successful anticancer immunotherapy.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-09-29
    Description: Cancer cells accommodate multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations that initially activate intrinsic (cell-autonomous) and extrinsic (immune-mediated) oncosuppressive mechanisms. Only once these barriers to oncogenesis have been overcome can malignant growth proceed unrestrained. Tetraploidization can contribute to oncogenesis because hyperploid cells are genomically unstable. We report that hyperploid cancer cells become immunogenic because of a constitutive endoplasmic reticulum stress response resulting in the aberrant cell surface exposure of calreticulin. Hyperploid, calreticulin-exposing cancer cells readily proliferated in immunodeficient mice and conserved their increased DNA content. In contrast, hyperploid cells injected into immunocompetent mice generated tumors only after a delay, and such tumors exhibited reduced DNA content, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and calreticulin exposure. Our results unveil an immunosurveillance system that imposes immunoselection against hyperploidy in carcinogen- and oncogene-induced cancers.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Senovilla, Laura -- Vitale, Ilio -- Martins, Isabelle -- Tailler, Maximilien -- Pailleret, Claire -- Michaud, Mickael -- Galluzzi, Lorenzo -- Adjemian, Sandy -- Kepp, Oliver -- Niso-Santano, Mireia -- Shen, Shensi -- Marino, Guillermo -- Criollo, Alfredo -- Boileve, Alice -- Job, Bastien -- Ladoire, Sylvain -- Ghiringhelli, Francois -- Sistigu, Antonella -- Yamazaki, Takahiro -- Rello-Varona, Santiago -- Locher, Clara -- Poirier-Colame, Vichnou -- Talbot, Monique -- Valent, Alexander -- Berardinelli, Francesco -- Antoccia, Antonio -- Ciccosanti, Fabiola -- Fimia, Gian Maria -- Piacentini, Mauro -- Fueyo, Antonio -- Messina, Nicole L -- Li, Ming -- Chan, Christopher J -- Sigl, Verena -- Pourcher, Guillaume -- Ruckenstuhl, Christoph -- Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac -- Lazar, Vladimir -- Penninger, Josef M -- Madeo, Frank -- Lopez-Otin, Carlos -- Smyth, Mark J -- Zitvogel, Laurence -- Castedo, Maria -- Kroemer, Guido -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Sep 28;337(6102):1678-84.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉INSERM, U848, Villejuif, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23019653" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calreticulin/immunology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Common Variable Immunodeficiency/genetics ; DNA, Neoplasm/analysis/genetics ; Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/*immunology ; Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism ; Humans ; Immunocompetence ; *Immunologic Surveillance ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Neoplasms/chemically induced/*genetics/*immunology ; Phosphorylation ; *Ploidies
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-27
    Description: Alterations of mitochondrial functions are linked to multiple degenerative or acute diseases. As mitochondria age in our cells, they become progressively inefficient and potentially toxic, and acute damage can trigger the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes to initiate apoptosis or necrosis. Moreover, mitochondria have an important role in pro-inflammatory signaling. Autophagic turnover of cellular constituents, be it general or specific for mitochondria (mitophagy), eliminates dysfunctional or damaged mitochondria, thus counteracting degeneration, dampening inflammation, and preventing unwarranted cell loss. Decreased expression of genes that regulate autophagy or mitophagy can cause degenerative diseases in which deficient quality control results in inflammation and the death of cell populations. Thus, a combination of mitochondrial dysfunction and insufficient autophagy may contribute to multiple aging-associated pathologies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405151/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405151/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Green, Douglas R -- Galluzzi, Lorenzo -- Kroemer, Guido -- R01 AI040646/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI047891/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM096208/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM052735/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Aug 26;333(6046):1109-12. doi: 10.1126/science.1201940.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. douglas.green@stjude.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21868666" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Aging ; Animals ; Apoptosis ; *Autophagy ; Cell Aging ; *Cell Death ; Humans ; Inflammation/*physiopathology ; Mitochondria/*physiology ; Necrosis ; Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-12-17
    Description: Antineoplastic chemotherapies are particularly efficient when they elicit immunogenic cell death, thus provoking an anticancer immune response. Here we demonstrate that autophagy, which is often disabled in cancer, is dispensable for chemotherapy-induced cell death but required for its immunogenicity. In response to chemotherapy, autophagy-competent, but not autophagy-deficient, cancers attracted dendritic cells and T lymphocytes into the tumor bed. Suppression of autophagy inhibited the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from dying tumor cells. Conversely, inhibition of extracellular ATP-degrading enzymes increased pericellular ATP in autophagy-deficient tumors, reestablished the recruitment of immune cells, and restored chemotherapeutic responses but only in immunocompetent hosts. Thus, autophagy is essential for the immunogenic release of ATP from dying cells, and increased extracellular ATP concentrations improve the efficacy of antineoplastic chemotherapies when autophagy is disabled.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Michaud, Mickael -- Martins, Isabelle -- Sukkurwala, Abdul Qader -- Adjemian, Sandy -- Ma, Yuting -- Pellegatti, Patrizia -- Shen, Shensi -- Kepp, Oliver -- Scoazec, Marie -- Mignot, Gregoire -- Rello-Varona, Santiago -- Tailler, Maximilien -- Menger, Laurie -- Vacchelli, Erika -- Galluzzi, Lorenzo -- Ghiringhelli, Francois -- di Virgilio, Francesco -- Zitvogel, Laurence -- Kroemer, Guido -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Dec 16;334(6062):1573-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1208347.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉INSERM, U848, Villejuif, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22174255" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Autophagy/drug effects/*physiology ; Calreticulin/pharmacology ; Cell Death/immunology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Dendritic Cells/immunology ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mitoxantrone/pharmacology ; Neoplasms/drug therapy/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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