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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Hospital infection ; Epidemiology ; Etiology ; Epidemiologic methods
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study was carried out in order to assess the validity of the pure cross-sectional study in the ascertainment of nosocomial infection risk-factors. The results yielded by two designs (cross-sectional and case-control) are compared. A cross-sectional design was performed in a tertiary hospital. 592 patients were studied, 38 of whom were nosocomially infected. The clinical information on all the patients included in this design was reviewed after hospital discharge. A matched case-control study was nested in the population cross-sectionally surveyed. 66 cases (28 additional patients developed a hospital infection) and 132 controls were selected. Odds ratios (ORs) for the risk factors analyzed by both designs were compared. There were no significant differences between the estimates yielded by both designs; however, a trend of lower OR estimates for the cross-sectional study was seen, which may be important for risk factors not strongly related to (low relative risk) nosocomial infection. Several factors which might account for the results observed (random error, bias introduced by matching) are discussed. It is suggested that pure cross-sectional designs for the study of risk factors of nosocomial infection may introduce a negative (toward-the-null) bias.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Nosocomial infection ; Wound infection ; Risk factors ; Hospital surveillance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this paper we have analyzed several risk factors for developing nosocomial infections at a Surgical Service of the Hospital Clinico Universitario ≪ San Cecilio 2〉, based on a retrospective follow-up program designed specifically for this study. Of all patients admitted to the Service from January 1 to June 17, 1987, we examined the following variables: age, sex, cause of admission, emergency or non-emergency admission, operation and related variables. The overall rate of nosocomial infections was 16.46%. The most significant risk factors we found were ≪ operation ≫, which had a linear correlation coefficient of '0.929 (p 〈 0.01) with hospital infection when stratified by its lenght, ≪ advanced age ≫ ( 〉60 years old), especially in non-operated patients, and chemoprophylaxis. Such risk factors were ascertained taking into account the confounding effect produced by the variables studied in this survey.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Hospital stay length ; Nosocomial infection ; Risk factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This paper addresses the problem of hospital stay length as a risk factor for nosocomial infection and as a modifier of the effect of other risk factors for hospital infection. Patients were selected form two cross-sectional studies done in two different seasons of 1986. Risk of infection rose fairly steadily as hospital stay lenght increased (correlation coefficient: 0,83, p〈0.01). Several risk factors (operation, underlying disease, and age) were analyzed on the basis of 1) raw data and 2) data stratified by lenght of stay. The results showed that hospital stay lenght is a strong modifier of the remaining risk factors, generally reducing, their effect on the development of hospital infection as length of stay increases.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Elderly ; Falls ; Geriatric residence ; Precipitating causes ; Risk factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this prospective cohort study was to identify the risk factors involved in falls in 190 elderly residents of two geriatric centres in Granada (Andalusia, Spain). Because different types of falls may be associated with different factors, falls were classified according to the precipitating cause, either extrinsic or intrinsic. The incidence density and the ratios for crude and adjusted density were calculated. Cox proportional risk analysis was used to calculate adjusted incidence density ratios. Of the 121 falls identified, 63 (52.1%) had a extrinsic precipitating cause, 43 (35.5%) had an intrinsic precipitating cause, and no precipitating cause was determined in 15 falls. The rate of falls with an extrinsic precipitating cause was 0.39 per person per year, while falls with an intrinsic precipitating cause showed a frequency of 0.27 per person per year. For falls with an extrinsic precipitating cause, the most significant risk factors were: age, diabetes mellitus, a history of falling, and treatment with neuroleptics or oral bronchodilators. The number of illnesses acted as a protective factor. For falls with an intrinsic precipitating cause, the independent risk factors were: age, diabetes, dementia, alterations of gait and balance, previous falls, and treatment with digitalins, neuroleptics or antidepressants. These results suggest that the susceptibility to a fall with an intrinsic precipitating cause is easier to identify and has a greater potential for being controlled.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Dental caries ; Prevalence ; Epidemiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A sample of 3,347 students between 5 and 14 years of age was selected from the entire student population in the province of Granada (Spain) to study the prevalence of dental caries and several risk factors for the disease. Decay was ascertained in the study population by mean of the following indices: df, DMF, and DMFS. Risk factors considered were the level of oral hygiene, number of between-meal sugar-containing food, and flouride concentration in drinking water. The indices mentioned showed a clear relationship to the age of the participants in the study. The level of oral hygiene did not show a clear association with dental caries measured through the df and DMF indices. Curiously, a higher correlation was noted between the disease in deciduous teeth and fluoride concentration than between the disease in permanent teeth and the latter factor.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Wir fandenKlebsiella ozaenae nur bei sechs Frauen von insgesamt 30 Fällen (20 Frauen, zehn Männer) mit atrophischer Rhinitis. Diese Isolate wurden in Abständen von 15 Tagen dreimal bestätigt. Bei den verbleibenden 24 Patienten wurde eine breite Vielfalt von Mikroorganismen isoliert, dabei warProteus mirabilis am häufigsten.
    Notes: Summary We foundKlebsiella ozaenae in only six women of 30 patients (20 females, ten males) suffering from atrophic rhinitis. These isolates were confirmed three times at intervals of 15 days. In the remaining 24 patients a wide variety of microorganisms were isolated,Proteus mirabilis having the highest incidence.
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