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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148-5018 , USA and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Clinical evidence is accumulating that pacing from traditional right-sided sites (right ventricular apex and right atrial appendage) may be associated with long-term detriment to left ventricular function and promotion of atrial arrhythmias. Large numbers of small studies, some randomized, have addressed the effects of pacing from nontraditional or alternate sites, but the studies have varied in design such that comparison of results is often difficult. Many studies show data from acute studies only, although more recently longer-term data have started to become available; definition and description of pacing site also varies, adding further to the difficulties in comparing data. This article attempts to examine the randomized studies available to date, and to consider how future studies may contribute to our understanding of the effects of pacing from traditional and selected, specific sites on the right side of the heart. (PACE 2004; 27[Pt. II]:878–882)
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148-5018 , USA and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Selective site right ventricular pacing has been suggested as an approach to reduce the incidence of ventricular dysfunction and hopefully influence the morbidity resulting from traditional right ventricular apical pacing. Pacing from the right ventricular apex allows a stable ventricular rate, and together with atrial pacing and sensing, helps maintain atrioventricular synchrony but does not allow physiological activation of the left ventricle. Traditional atrial pacing sites like the right atrial appendage may encourage atrial tachyarrhythmias, whereas lead placement in right atrial septal sites may reduce the frequency of symptomatic atrial tachyarrhythmia episodes, especially when combined with prevention algorithms. Researchers attempting to pace the heart from these selective sites have been hindered by the lack of uniform definitions of where these sites actually lie and the inadequacy of tools to consistently reach these locations and verify correct placement. This lack of definition consensus may have contributed to the apparent conflict of data, particularly in the right ventricle. There is an urgent need for a standardization of terms and identifying measures for selective pacing sites. (PACE 2004; 27[Pt. II]:883–886)
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Current anchoring systems on pacemaker leads are crude in comparison to the lead technology. Poor anchoring technique may cause damage to the lead or early displacement from incorrect suture tension. We describe experience with a locking anchoring sleeve that applies a constant gripping force to the lead body. This can be locked and unlocked to allow optimal positioning after fixation of the sleeve to underlying tissues. The sleeve was fitted to a 55D polyurethane lead (Medtronic 4024, 7 Fr, bipolar, steroid elating) implanted in the ventricular position in 22 patients at four European centers. All implants were uncomplicated; data were collected on handling and ease of use. Assessments were made using a scale of 1–10 (10 = excellent, 5 = equivalent to conventional sleeve). Overall ease of use compared to conventional sleeve was 7.79 ± 0.62 (mean ± SD). Mean scoring of flexibility of the lead at the transition points was 7.92 ± 0.72; ability to lock/unlock the sleeve scored 6.28 ± 1.78. Ease of suturing around the sleeve scored 8.07 ± 0.77, and ability to slide the sleeve along the lead body scored 6.48 ± 1.99. Chest X rays at 6 weeks showed no change in lead position with respect to postimplant films, and all leads showed a straight path on either side of the sleeve with no evidence of conductor distortion. Follow-up to 3 years has been without problem. All leads remain intact and in place, with stable thresholds and no evidence of erosion. There have been no complaints of patient discomfort. We conclude that this device is safe and effective and offers a significant advance in lead fixation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Tilt testing is accepted as the main tool for the diagnosis of neurocardiogenic syncope, particularly in the “malignant” vasovagal form. As a result of experience with tilt testing, the cardiovascular responses to head-up tilting in patients with malignant vasovagal syncope (MVVS) have been defined in respect of the vasodepressor (hypotensive) and cardioinhibitory (bradycardic) components. Pacing therapy has been of limited value in the past, with controversy about its role, even in the cardioinhibitory form of MVVS. With the advent of more sophisticated algorithms for pacing (i.e., rate-drop response [RDR], Thera DR) in response to the onset of bradycardia in MVVS, however, this therapy is being reexamined. This article examines the blood pressure and heart rate responses to head-up tilt in patients with MVVS and examines the role of this test in screening such patients for the benefits of pacing with RDR. Careful analysis of the pattern of blood pressure and heart rate response during the tilt test may allow selection of those patients likely to respond to RDR and may provide useful information for initial programming of the algorithm.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Effective programming of the rate-drop response algorithm requires careful attention to the heart rate and blood pressure responses seen during diagnostic tilt testing. In order to undertake effective programming, additional tilt testing procedures may be necessary, and it is vital that the protocol should be identical on each occasion and very careful note taken of exact times of onset of symptoms and relative timing of onset of changes in heart rate and blood pressure. The algorithm settings in the Thera DR generator as delivered (factory or “shelf” parameter settings) must be considered nontherapeutic (an unusual situation for a pacemaker algorithm) and will require adjustment for each individual patient. Effective therapeutic settings are likely to result in an excess of pacing interventions; these, however, tend to be less symptomatic than the syncope orpresyncope suffered by the patient and are generally well tolerated or not noticed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study examined the effectiveness of cardiac pacing using the Thera DR rate-drop response algorithm for prevention of recurrent symptoms in patients with carotid sinus syndrome (CSS) or vasovagal syncope. The algorithm comprises both diagnostic and treatment elements. The diagnostic element consists of a programmable “window” used to identify heart rate changes compatible with an evolving neurally mediated syncopal episode. The treatment arm consists of pacing at a selectable rate and for a programmable duration. Forty-three patients (mean age 53 ± 20.4 years) with CSS alone (n = 8), CSS in conjunction with vasovagal syncope (n = 4), or vasovagal syncope alone (n = 31) were included. Thirty-nine had recurrent syncope, while the remaining four reported multiple presyncopal events. Prior to pacing, 40 ± 152 syncopal episodes (range from 1 to approximately 1,000 syncopal events) over the preceding 56 ± 84.5 months. Postpacing follow-up duration was 204 ± 172 days. Three patients have been lost to follow-up and in one patient the algorithm was disabled. Among the remaining 39 individuals, 31 (80%) indicated absence or diminished frequency of symptoms, or less severe symptoms. Twenty-three patients (23/29, or 59%) were asymptomatic with respect to syncope or presyncope. Sixteen patients had symptom recurrences. Of these, seven experienced syncope (7/39, or 18%) and 9 (29%) had presyncope: the majority of patients with recurrences (6/7 syncope and 7/9 presyncope) were individuals with a history of vasovagal syncope. Consequently, although symptoms were observed during postpacing follow-up, they appeared to be of reduced frequency and severity. Thus, our findings suggest that a transient period of high rate pacing triggered by the Thera DR rate-drop response algorithm was beneficial in a large proportion of highly symptomatic patients with CSS or vasovagal syncope.
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