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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The hydrorhizae of Sertularia perpusilla colonies that originate from stolon attachments initially grow up and down Posidonia leaves. After a short time the distal hydroid tissue degenerates concurrently with the downward growth of the proximal hydrorhiza onto younger sections of the leaves. Consequently the hydroids ‘move’ down the leaves which grow upward from a basal meristem. In situ inversion of leaves had no effect on either the orientation or the rates of growth and degeneration. This indicates that orientation may be in response to age related features of leaf tissue rather than to light, gravity or water movement, the directions of which were reversed by inverting the leaves. However, orientation of growth of new hydroids from attached stolons is immediate, probably before the hydroid colony is long enough to be able to detect an age gradient. This paradox could be explained if initial orientation were based on the direction of gravity or light but subsequent growth were directed along the age gradient. For hydroids in the size range studied there was a relation between growth rate and number of hydranths. Thus growth rate may be limited by food rather than by there being only one growing tip of the hydrorhizae.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: fish ; assemblage ; artificial reefs ; substrate ; colonization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The Migjorn artificial reef (MAR) was deployed in the summer of 1990 and is made by 48 concrete blocks set 30 m deep on a sea bed of sand with a small proportion of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadow. Visual censuses of blocks on both substrata were carried out during the months of February, May and September in 1992 and 1993. The MAR fish assemblages were influenced by the surronding substrate. Thus, a group of ubiquitous species, frequent on both substrata and typical of natural rocky habitats (mostly Sparidae) and a group associated with the samples recorded on the Posidonia meadow (mostly Labridae) could be distinguished. Season had only a secondary and slight effect on fish assemblages. The MAR was colonized by 74% of the species in the first two years after deployment. Positive and lineal relationships between species richness, diversity, abundance of necto-benthic species and time since deployment on sandy substrata were found. On Posidonia oceanica deployment time has only increased very sedentary and cryptic species. Although some ways in which the MAR would have a productive function are not rejected, the most obvious MAR working pattern is that of fish aggregation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: fish ; assemblage ; artificial reefs ; substrate ; colonization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The Migjorn artificial reef (MAR) was deployed in the summer of 1990 and is made by 48 concrete blocks set 30 m deep on a sea bed of sand with a small proportion of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadow. Visual censuses of blocks on both substrata were carried out during the months of February, May and September in 1992 and 1993. The MAR fish assemblages were influenced by the surronding substrate. Thus, a group of ubiquitous species, frequent on both substrata and typical of natural rocky habitats (mostly Sparidae) and a group associated with the samples recorded on the Posidonia meadow (mostly Labridae) could be distinguished. Season had only a secondary and slight effect on fish assemblages. The MAR was colonized by 74% of the species in the first two years after deployment. Positive and lineal relationships between species richness, diversity, abundance of necto-benthic species and time since deployment on sandy substrata were found. On Posidonia oceanica deployment time has only increased very sedentary and cryptic species. Although some ways in which the MAR would have a productive function are not rejected, the most obvious MAR working pattern is that of fish aggregation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The microhabitat use and seasonality of the juveniles of 24 littoral species in the north-west Mediterranean Sea were studied between March 1993 and March 1994. Labrids species recruit during summer months, from July to September, whereas sparids recruit at different times of the year. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the species recruit in well-defined habitats. Sparid species recruit primarily in the shallowest zone (0 to 2 m), and most of them prefer varied bottoms (sand, gravel or small blocks). Some species of the genus Diplodus have similar habitat requirements, but show a clear seasonal segregation, with each species occupying successively the same zones at a different time of the year. Labrid species show a high degree of seasonal and spatial co-occurrence, and are normally found on rocky substrates with high algal cover. Two species (Mullus surmuletus and Symphodus cinereus) recruit mainly in Posidonia oceanica beds, while other species (Serranus cabrilla, Coris julis, Symphodus ocellatus, S. rostratus), are abundant in both seagrass beds and on rocky substrates.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Visual censuses conducted in a marine reserve (Medas Islands) were used to estimate the natural mortality rates (M) for five common fish species in the NW Mediterranean Sea (Coris julis, Diplodus annularis, D. sargus, Serranus cabrilla and Symphodus roissali). Visual censuses of these same five species were also performed at three sites in unprotected areas of the coast where both commercial and sport fishing activity was normal. Censuses were conducted over a 3 year period. Estimates of M in the 3 years displayed scant seasonal or interannual variation, which may mean that the populations were in equilibrium during that period. The results of this study showed that the relationships between M and the growth parameters and maximum life span were unclear, and considerable caution is therefore recommended when using indirect methods of estimating M based on those parameters. For certain species the values of M were equal to or greater than the estimated total mortality in the exploited areas. The virtual absence of piscivorous predators in the unprotected area as a consequence of the high level of fishing in that area contrasts with the high abundance of such predators in the marine reserve. Since predation is the main contributor to M, estimated mortality in the unprotected areas is attributable nearly entirely to fishing. It is suggested that M may vary according to alterations taking place in conditions in the ecosystem inhabited by a species and thus that use of a value of M for a pristine population cannot be extrapolated to exploited areas.
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