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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; tumor ; CELL ; human ; COMMON ; DISEASE ; SITES ; PROTEINS ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; TUMORS ; TIME ; PATIENT ; DNA ; SKIN ; papillomavirus ; antibody ; IN-SITU ; LESIONS ; COPY NUMBER ; human papillomavirus ; GENOTYPES ; HPV ; REPLICATION ; glutathione-S-transferase ; PSORIASIS ; EPIDERMODYSPLASIA-VERRUCIFORMIS ; hair ; GENOTYPE ; NONMELANOMA SKIN-CANCER ; USA ; PLUCKED EYEBROW HAIRS ; CLINICAL-ASPECTS ; HAIRS ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS-DNA
    Abstract: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare disease, characterized by cutaneous warts and associated with a strong predisposition to beta-genus human papillomavirus (HPV). Earlier studies reported high copy numbers of HPV-DNA in nearly all skin tumors from EV patients, but neither HPV replication status in non-lesional skin nor anti-HPV seroreactivity in these patients have been reported yet. We therefore performed a comprehensive viral load analysis for the more common beta-HPV types on skin samples and plucked eyebrow hairs from four EV patients treated at our dermatology department. The results clearly demonstrate that they carry a multiplicity (up to eighteen types) of beta-HPV genotypes in both skin sites. Worthy of note, a high intrapatient concordance for specific types between hair bulbs and skin biopsies was observed and the same beta-PV profile was maintained over time. Viral load analysis revealed a load range between less than one HPV-DNA copy per 100 cells to more than 400 HPV-DNA copies per cell in both eyebrow hairs and skin proliferative lesions. Evaluation of seroreactivity to beta-HPV types in the four EV patients revealed that antibodies against the 16 beta-HPV were significantly more prevalent and showed higher titers than in the controls
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18923444
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  • 2
    Abstract: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare recessive genodermatosis characterized by high susceptibility to infections with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) of genus beta. Knowledge about seroreactivity against HPV in these patients and their first-degree relatives is scarce. Using multiplex serology, we analyzed antibodies to 38 HPV types from five genera in 32 EV patients, 22 first-degree relatives, and 64 and 44 age- and sex-matched, non-related, healthy controls, respectively. EV patients showed higher seroprevalences than non-related controls with statistically significant odds ratios (ORs) for 5 of 10 investigated alpha (OR range 6.9-21.3), all 16 beta (OR range 12.3-61.3), 3 of 9 gamma (OR range 6.4-11.7), and 1 of 2 micro HPVs (OR 5.8). In comparison to their relatives, antibodies in EV patients were significantly more prevalent for 4 of 16 beta HPVs (OR range 12.5-25.6), but for none of the other genera. A significantly increased seroprevalence in relatives compared with their controls was only seen for HPV 5 (OR 22.1). The considerably elevated HPV seroprevalence in EV patients, especially for beta papillomaviruses (PVs), reflects the high viral load described for these individuals. Whether the observed differences between relatives and healthy controls depend on heterozygosity for EV-associated alleles requires further investigation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19924140
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aims:  To investigate whether the expression of interferon (IFN)-inducible gene IFI16 is inversely related to proliferative activity in vivo, we compared immunohistochemical reactivity of IFI16 in a series of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) with their proliferation index and the cell cycle regulator pRb. As human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is manifested by changes in the function or expression level of host genes such as IFN-inducible genes, we also investigated the presence of HPV DNA to determine whether head and neck cancers associated with HPV DNA can be distinguished from tumours that are presumably transformed by other mechanisms.Methods:  Thirty-six HNSCCs were evaluated for IFI16, pRb and Ki67 expression by immunohistochemistry. The presence of HPV was also detected by polymerase chain reaction. Nine tumours were located in the oropharynx (tonsillar area) and 27 in the larynx.Results:  HPV DNA was found in 14 of 25 (56%) laryngeal SCCs and in five of nine (56%) tonsillar SCC specimens examined; 17 out of the 19 HPV-DNA-positive cases showed high-grade IFI16 expression. Overall, proliferative activity was significantly related to tumour differentiation and histological grading. IFI16 protein expression was significantly inversely correlated with Ki67 (P = 0.039). Low-proliferating tumours positive for IFI16 staining showed a marked expression of pRb and a better prognosis than those whose tumours had low IFI16, pRb levels and a high proliferation index.Conclusions:  To our knowledge, this is the first expression analysis of the IFN-inducible IFI16 gene in HNSCC. Low-proliferating tumours positive for IFI16 staining showed a marked expression of pRb and a better prognosis than those whose tumours had low IFI16, pRb levels and a high proliferation index.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Although it is clear that high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can selectively infect keratinocytes and persist in the host, it still remains to be unequivocally determined whether they can escape antiviral innate immunity by interfering with pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling. In this study, we have assessed the innate immune response in monolayer and organotypic raft cultures of NIKS cells harboring multiple copies of episomal HPV18 (NIKSmcHPV18), which fully recapitulates the persistent state of infection. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that NIKSmcHPV18, as well as HeLa cells (a cervical carcinoma–derived cell line harboring integrated HPV18 DNA), display marked downregulation of several PRRs, as well as other PRR downstream effectors, such as the adaptor protein stimulator of IFN genes and the transcription factors IRF1 and 7. Importantly, we provide evidence that downregulation of stimulator of IFN genes, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, and retinoic acid–inducible gene I mRNA levels occurs at the transcriptional level through a novel epigenetic silencing mechanism, as documented by the accumulation of repressive heterochromatin markers seen at the promoter region of these genes. Furthermore, stimulation of NIKSmcHPV18 cells with salmon sperm DNA or poly(deoxyadenylic-deoxythymidylic) acid, two potent inducers of PRR signaling, only partially restored PRR protein expression. Accordingly, the production of IFN-β and IFN- 1 was significantly reduced in comparison with the parental NIKS cells, indicating that HPV18 exerts its immunosuppressive activity through downregulation of PRR signaling. Altogether, our findings indicate that high-risk human papillomaviruses have evolved broad-spectrum mechanisms that allow simultaneous depletion of multiple effectors of the innate immunity network, thereby creating an unreactive cellular milieu suitable for viral persistence.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: The innate immune response plays a pivotal role during human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) primary infection. Indeed, HCMV infection of primary fibroblasts rapidly triggers strong induction of type I interferons (IFN-I), accompanied by proinflammatory cytokine release. Here, we show that primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) infected with a mutant HCMV TB40/E strain unable to express UL83-encoded pp65 (v65Stop) produce significantly higher IFN-β levels than HFFs infected with the wild-type TB40/E strain or the pp65 revertant (v65Rev), suggesting that the tegument protein pp65 may dampen IFN-β production. To clarify the mechanisms through which pp65 inhibits IFN-β production, we analyzed the activation of the cGAS/STING/IRF3 axis in HFFs infected with either the wild type, the revertant v65Rev, or the pp65-deficient mutant v65Stop. We found that pp65 selectively binds to cGAS and prevents its interaction with STING, thus inactivating the signaling pathway through the cGAS/STING/IRF3 axis. Consistently, addition of exogenous cGAMP to v65Rev-infected cells triggered the production of IFN-β levels similar to those observed with v65Stop-infected cells, confirming that pp65 inactivation of IFN-β production occurs at the cGAS level. Notably, within the first 24 h of HCMV infection, STING undergoes proteasome degradation independently of the presence or absence of pp65. Collectively, our data provide mechanistic insights into the interplay between HCMV pp65 and cGAS, leading to subsequent immune evasion by this prominent DNA virus. IMPORTANCE Primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) produce type I IFN (IFN-I) when infected with HCMV. However, we observed significantly higher IFN-β levels when HFFs were infected with HCMV that was unable to express UL83-encoded pp65 (v65Stop), suggesting that pp65 (pUL83) may constitute a viral evasion factor. This study demonstrates that the HCMV tegument protein pp65 inhibits IFN-β production by binding and inactivating cGAS early during infection. In addition, this inhibitory activity specifically targets cGAS, since it can be bypassed via the addition of exogenous cGAMP, even in the presence of pp65. Notably, STING proteasome-mediated degradation was observed in both the presence and absence of pp65. Collectively, our data underscore the important role of the tegument protein pp65 as a critical molecular hub in HCMV's evasion strategy against the innate immune response.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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