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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: feedback mechanisms ; paracrine regulation ; breast cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Breast function and development are controlled by a variety of both local and systemic signals. Many of these signals are exerted by hormones and cytokines which are believed to be effectors in autoregulatory feedback loops. Recent studies have also suggested the involvement of such mechanisms in human breast cancer. For example, the disruption of a negative feedback system by malignant transformation can result in the loss of growth control or in increased malignant behavior of tumor cells. Conversely, pathological positive feedback loops can develop that enhance tumor growth and invasion by excessive release of stimulatory factors. These loops are often located at the site of tumor invasion and involve stromal–epithelial interactions. They can be composed of mutually stimulating or inhibiting cytokines and may include locally expressed sex steroids. Although most studies have concentrated on cell–cell interactions at the site of the primary tumor, a number of observations indicate their importance in metastases as well. A thorough analysis of the regulatory mechansims within a malignant tumor is essential for the understanding of its unique behavior and for the investigation of more specific breast cancer therapies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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