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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We analysed evoked responses recorded from 97 cells in the visual cortex of 4 adult cats and 8 kittens, stimulated by a drifting sinusoidal grating. A Fourier analysis of the responses allowed us to select 30 cells showing a clear modulating response (relative modulation index 〉 1). The 162 records from these selected cells were scanned to detect precise temporal correlations in the form of replicating triplets and associated “ghost” doublets. Temporal correlations of this nature were observed in these cells. They are about 10 times more abundant in adult cats than in kittens, and mostly observed in infragranular cortical layer cells. The possible role of these precise temporal patterns in information processing in the brain is examined, as well as the relation between this type of temporal correlation with coherent oscillations and principal components waveforms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Amygdala ; Commissural fibers of the fimbria ; Electrophysiology ; Lesions ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Single shock stimulations have been applied stereotaxically and bilaterally in the region of the caudo-thalamic groove of the cat. These stimulations elicit diphasic potentials in the amygdala. Using combined methods of stimulation and lesion, it has been demonstrated that these electrical responses are due to the excitation of fibers projecting rostrally in the lateral border of the contralateral fimbria and caudally in the homologous part of the homolateral fimbria. A commissural path has been identified in the rostral part of the fimbria-fornix. Analysis of the experimental data has shown that the projection system consists of a discrete bundle of fibers which probably reaches the amygdala directly, in the dorsal part of the basal nucleus. The length of the explored portion of this pathway has been measured. The calculated conduction velocity of this amygdalopetal commissural component of the fimbria is 4.5 m/sec.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Development ; Electrophysiology ; Visual area 18 ; Kitten ; Normal and dark-rearing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The development of visual cell properties was studied in cortical Area 18 (A18) of normal (NRs) and dark-reared kittens (DRs), from 2 weeks of age to adulthood. In addition to the orientation selective (S) and non-selective (NS) cells, we describe a new type of non-selective cell with a peripheral zone (NSp), which could be either an intermediate form between NS and S cells and included in a sequential model or an immature form of the S cells whose responses are affected by peripheral stimulations. Using accurate coordinates for the area centralis position relative to the optic disc projection as a function of age, we show that: a) the extent of the visual field increases with age in DRs and NRs; b) the retinotopic organization is always present; c) receptive fields, large in the NS cells, reduce to the size of mature S cells as soon as the cells acquire orientation selectivity. This process can occur after only 6 h of visual experience; d) velocity preference shifts toward high velocities, though more so in NRs than in DRs. An interpretation of the development of these properties is proposed, taking into account eye growth, the growth of dendritic fields and the formation of new connections. A comparison with previous results obtained in Area 17 (A17) shows a similar time course of the specification (NRs) and of the despecification (DRs) processes, although the development of A18 is postponed by about 2 weeks. Moreover, the “adult-like” binocular distribution of ocular dominance depends upon visual experience in A18, while it does not in A17.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Area 17 ; Orientation selectivity ; Neonatal enucleation ; Development
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The developmental properties of 573 neurones have been investigated in the primary visual cortex of eight binocularly intact and twelve unilaterally enucleated kittens. It is shown that removal of one eye at birth alters the development of orientation selectivity observed in the presence or absence of visual experience. In 6-week-old deprived kittens, there remain significantly more orientation selective cells in enucleated than in binocularly deprived kittens. These deprivation-resistant cells respond preferentially to horizontal or vertical orientations and are recorded mainly in the cortex contralateral to the remaining eye. In six-week-old kittens with visual experience, the process of tuning maturation appears to be unaffected by unilateral enucleation at birth. However, a larger over-representation of horizontal and vertical orientation preferences is observed in uniocular kittens than in binocularly intact kittens, suggesting that the development of oblique orientation preference depends upon the presence of binocular afferents in the visual pathway.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Kitten ; Visual cortex ; Development ; Orientation selectivity ; Eye movement direction ; Extraocular proprioception
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. Previous experiments have demonstrated that eye movements, acting through the extraocular muscle (EOM) proprioceptive afferents, are necessary for the development of orientation selectivity in the cells of the kitten visual cortex. New experiments were carried out to study the effect of the plane of eye movements on the preferred orientation acquired by the visual cortical cells. 2. Darkreared (DR) kittens were operated on at 5–6 weeks of age. In the first series of experiments, 4 out of the 6 EOMs were removed bilaterally in such a way that both eyes could only move in a single plane, either vertical or horizontal. In the second series of experiments, the same operation was performed on one eye which was also sutured shut and, on the other side, the EOM were deafferented by intracranial section of the ophthalmic branch of Vth nerve and the eye left open. 3. 1–4 days after surgery the kittens were given 6 h of visual experience and 12 h later were prepared for visual cell recording in Area 17. 4. In kittens of the first series: orientation selectivity developed in the majority (60–65%) of visual cells, most of which encoded horizontal orientations when the eyes had moved in the vertical plane and vertical orientations when the eyes had moved in the horizontal plane. These results show that the plane of eye movements during early visual experience influences the distribution of preferred orientations with an orthogonal relation. Ocular dominance histograms were “strabismic like”. 5. In kittens of the second series: orientation selectivity developed in 40–50% of cells, about half of which were tuned for the orientation orthogonal to the direction of movement of the occluded eye, as in experiment I. The seeing, deafferented eye, presumably would have sent normal visual inputs centrally, corresponding to displacements on the retina in every direction since the ocular motility of that eye had not been disturbed. However, proprioceptive information about its movements was suppressed. As only some of the EOMs of the occluded eye were still present and connected, the conclusion is that the observed influence of the plane of eye movements acts through the proprioceptive afferents. The ocular dominance histograms showed: 1) a powerful change in favour of the seeing eye after only 6 h of monocular visual experience; 2) a larger effect of monocular visual experience in the hemisphere contralateral to the seeing eye; 3) a linkage between acquisition of orientation selectivity and shift in ocular dominance. 6. Our results suggest that normal development of orientation selectivity in visual cortical cells results from the close association of visual and EOM afferent inputs. It is suggested that these two signals must occur with a precise temporal relationship.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 272 (1978), S. 816-817 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] In the first series, six DR kittens (six weeks old) were exposed to a normal visual environment for six hours. For four of them (group a) the responses of cells in area 17 were studied electrophysiologically immediately after the period of active visual experience. Three types of visual cell were ...
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