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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words CYP3A4 ; Dapsone N-hydroxylation ; Cortisol β-hydroxylation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: This study examined the use of dapsone N-hydroxylation and cortisol 6β-hydroxylation, well accepted in vivo probes of cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) activity, on defining the effect of three HIV protease inhibitors on CYP3A4 activity. Methods: Subjects from University Hospital Infectious Disease Clinic about to be started on indinavir, and subjects from two clinical studies, one using ritonavir and the other using amprenavir, were recruited to participate in the study. Subjects received dapsone 100 mg p.o. followed by an 8-h urine collection for dapsone, dapsone N-hydroxylamine, cortisol, and 6β-hydroxycortisol concentrations before HIV protease inhibitor administration, and 3–4 weeks into receiving HIV protease inhibitors. Results: None of the HIV protease inhibitors demonstrated statistically significant alterations in dapsone recovery ratio and 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio. In fact, with ritonavir, the dapsone recovery ratio tended to increase rather than decrease, suggesting induction. These negative results were found despite evidence of CYP3A4 inhibition by these three HIV protease inhibitors via published drug-drug interactions with drugs that are substrates for CYP3A4. Conclusions: These in vivo assays used to probe CYP3A4 activity are suboptimal, most likely because of the presence of extrahepatic sites of metabolism for both dapsone and cortisol, and multiple CYP isozymes involved in dapsone N-hydroxylation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Hip fracture ; Hospital discharge data ; Incidence rates ; International comparison
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A comparison of hip fracture rates among nine countries (Canada, Chile, Finland, Hong Kong, Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland, the United States and Venezuela) was made using national hospital discharge data for the same time interval. The rates increased by age and were higher for females than males in all nine countries. When based on overall discharge rates, the incidence of hip fracture appeared high in three European countries (Finland, Scotland and Sweden) relative to the other countries. However, when transfer cases were removed and adjustments made for differences in case definition, the risk of hip fracture for both men and women was much similar among the four European and two North American countries, but higher than in Hong Kong. Rates of fracture were lowest in Venezuela and Chile, varying from three to 11 times less than for residents of the other seven countries. Although there are limitations in using hospital discharge data as a measure of incidence, the wide variation in the risk of hip fracture across the nine countries appears real but differences between North American and north European countries may not be as great as previously reported. Such cross-national comparisons may help clarify different etiologic hypotheses.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0022-4731
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0022-4731
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Sozial- und Präventivmedizin 28 (1983), S. 21-23 
    ISSN: 1420-911X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Par sa conception et par les montants des tarifs, la rémunération du médecin scolaire à temps partiel influence l'engagement de celui-ci. Les dispositions tarifaires des différents cantons attestent de la diversité des modes de rétribution. On présente les tarifs cantonaux de manière comparative en portant l'accent sur l'efficacité qu'ils doivent susciter.
    Abstract: Summary The value of the work done by part-time school medical officers is influenced by the kind and the amount of their salary. The official regulations in the various cantons demonstrate the multitude of payment schedules. In the present review schedules of the various cantons are compared and evaluated with respect to their ability to catalyze efficiency.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Art und Höhe der nebenamtlichen Entschädigung beeinflussen den Wert der Bemähungen des Schularztes. Die Tarifbestimmungen der einzelnen Kantone belegen die Vielfalt der Honorierungsmodi. In einer Übersicht werden die kantonalen Entschädigungen vergleichbar dargestellt und als Effizienzkatalysatoren bewertet.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Sozial- und Präventivmedizin 19 (1974), S. 69-69 
    ISSN: 1420-911X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-911X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-911X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary This report presents some results of a survey of 2872 men and women of 17 to 18 years of age. A multivariate analysis shows a strong association of consumption of illegal drugs with that of tobacco and alcohol, as well as with absence of spare time sports activities (men) and excessive use of medicaments (women). The results favour a multifactorial model of prevention of drug abuse.
    Notes: Résumé Ce rapport présente quelques résultats d'une enquête auprès de 2872 garçons et filles post-scolaires. Une analyse multivariée démontre une liaison étroite de la consommation de stupéfiants avec celle du tabac et de l'alcool, ainsi qu'avec l'absence des activités sportives (garçons) et la consommation abusive de médicaments (filles). Les résultats soutiennent un modèle multifactoriel de la prévention des toxicomanies.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Two laboratory stocks of Anopheles minimus, each fixed for variant electromorphs of esterases, aspartate aminotransferase, hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, mannose phosphate isomerase and glycerol dehydrogenase were used to assess linkage relationships between presumed gene loci controlling this variation. The two F1, which had been obtained from crossing the stocks, were backcrossed to a parental stock. Three loci controlled the esterases and one locus each of the other enzymes. Mpi is sex-linked. The rest are autosomal and suggested relationships are: Pgd 2.3% recombination from Aat and unlinked to any other loci; Est-1-33.8%-Est-3-31.5%-Est-2-21.0%-Had. Gcd is unlinked to any other locus. There was evidence of strong interaction between the X chromosome of one stock and autosomes of the other in which individuals bearing the X chromosome of the one suffered relatively greater mortality and had delayed development with respect to other genotypic classes.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1420-911X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Dans le canton de Berne, il y a eu pour la première fois un dépistage systématique des anticorps contre la rubéole ou cours de l'année scolaire 1971/72, atteignant la collectivité fémimine, âgée de 15 à 17 ans. Selon l'examen sérologique, déterminant le titre d'anticorps, la vaccination contre la rubéole a été recommandée individuellement aux jeunes filles non protégées. En rapport avec la prise de sang pour le test, les jeunes filles ont répondu à un questionnaire, qui permet de partager la collectivité choisie en groupes différents. La vaccination contre la rubéole suivie d'un examen sérologique a été offerte gratuitement aux 488 jeunes filles domiciliées à Berne, Bienne et Thoune. Toutes les jeunes filles dont les parents ont désiré la vaccination, ont été vaccinées contre la rubéole dans des lieux centraux. Le degré de participation d'après certaines caractéristiques est recherché. Le degré de participation est plus élevé chez les filles les plus jeunes, donc celles âgées de 15 ans, et — indépendamment de l'âge des jeunes filles — la participation à la vaccination est en corrélation positive avec la meilleure formation scolaire, non seulement de la jeune fille mais encore de celle de leur père. Les écolières des écoles supérieures ont mieux compris la signification de la vaccination contre la rubéole que les écolières des écoles primaires; mais parmi ces deux groupes, cette connaissance spécifique n'est pas liée directement à la disposition à se faire vacciner. Il est recommandé de tenir compte de ces résultats pour que l'on puisse, à l'avenir, atteindre le plus grand nombre de jeunes filles à vacciner.
    Abstract: Summary During the school year 1971/72, the Canton of Bern conducted, for the first time, a systematic immunization program against rubella. A determination of rubella antibodies was performed among the 15- to 17-year-old girls of the Canton; and immunization was offered individually to those not naturally protected. At the time of blood taking for the serologic test, a questionnaire was completed to allow division of the population into different subgroups. In the cities of Bern, Biel and Thun, 488 girls were offered free of charge rubella immunization with serologic follow-up control. Those girls registered voluntarily by their parents were subsequently immunized at central locations. The subject of the present study is the participation rate according to several criteria. Participation was higher among younger girls. Independently of age, it was positively correlated with a higher level of education of the daughter as well as the father. Girls with a higher level of education had understood the meaning of rubella immunization more often than had those with a lower level, but within these two groups, this specific knowledge was not directly associated with a higher participation rate in the immunization program. It is recommended to take these findings into account in future immunization campaigns.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung 1971/72 erfolgte im Kanton Bern erstmals eine systematische Impfaktion gegen die Röteln bei den 15- bis 17jährigen Mädchen. Aufgrund einer serologischen Bestimmung der Antikörpertiter wurde nur den nicht geschützten Mädchen die Rötelnimpfung individuell empfohlen. Im Zusammenhang mit der Blutentnahme für den Test beantworteten die Mädchen einen Fragebogen, der erlaubt, die untersuchte Bevölkerung in verschiedene Untergruppen zu unterteilen. In den Städten Bern, Biel und Thun wurde 488 Mädchen eine Rötelnimpfung mit serologischer Nachkontrolle kostenlos angeboten; alle von den Eltern freiwillig zur Impfung angemeldeten Mädchen sind an zentralen Stellen gegen Röteln geimpft worden. Untersucht wird der Beteiligungsgrad nach verschiedenen Kriterien. Beim jüngeren Jahrgang ist die Beteiligungsrate höher, und unabhängig vom Alter der Mädchen ist die Impfbeteiligung positiv korreliert mit der besseren Schulbildun sowohl der Tochter als auch ihres Vaters. Von den Mittelschülerinnen haben prozentual mehr den Sinn der Rötelnimpfung verstanden als von den Primarschülerinnen, jedoch ist innerhalb dieser beiden Gruppen dieses spezifische Wissen nicht direkt mit der Impfbereitschaft verbunden. Es wird empfohlen, zur Erreichung einer optimalen Erfassung der Zielbevölkerung diese Erkenntnisse- in zukünftigen Impfaktionen mitzuberücksichtigen.
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