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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 6 (1960), S. 29-34 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Studies of the evaporation and drying rates in an experimental concurrent spray dryer, 8 in. in diameter and 14 ft. high, are reported for various operating air temperatures. It was found that the total evaporation and drying time could be accurately predicted by employing a step-by-step method of calculation. Owing to the probable absence of internal diffusional resistance in the small particles, less than 30 μ, produced in the dryer, no significant falling-rate period was observed. This was in marked contrast with tray-drying experiments carried out on the same substance, under similar drying conditions. The results also confirmed that a Nusselt number of 2 can safely be used in spray-drying heat transfer calculations.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 6 (1960), S. 184-190 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The rate of heat and mass transfer in the nozzle zone of water sprays produced by internal-mixing pneumatic nozzles and hollow-cone pressure nozzles was determined for both concurrent and crosscurrent drying air-flow patterns. The Nusselt numbers for the evaporating drops were correlated by means of the equation proposed by Ranz and Marshall for stationary drops in a moving air flow. Methods of measuring the physical properties of the water-air system were developed, and special attention was devoted to the determination of drop velocities and air humidity.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 764-771 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A step-by-step prediction procedure has been developed to predict the evaporation of a sodium nitrate spray consisting of small drops moving at terminal velocity through the drying air. The procedure accounts both for the existence of radial gradients as well as radial mixing in the dryer and is selfsustaining except for values of the local air velocity.Because the procedure can be applied only to the free-fall zone, at some distance below the nozzle, a method was developed for the indirect determination of the amount of water remaining in the partly evaporated droplets at the beginning of the free-fall zone. This procedure was then applied to experimental data on drop size distributions obtained at the beginning of this zone. Owing to uncertainties concerning the salt concentration in the drops, a number of assumptions had to be made and the procedure was only partially successful in describing the spray evaporation, although it did compute the radial spray transfer. It was possible, however, to indicate by means of a model drop distribution the general validity of the procedure.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: No Absract.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 17 (1971), S. 519-528 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Mean velocity and turbulence measurements in the void spaces of a cubic packing of equal spheres have been made at Reynolds numbers of 27,000, 10,000, 5,000 and 2,500, where NRe is based on superficial air velocity and a sphere diameter of 7 cm. Two cubic arrangements were used: in the regular arrangement, the mean flow was parallel to one of the principal axes, while in the skewed arrangement, the mean flow made equal angles with the three principal axes of the packing.Transverse mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles across the center line of a central pore have been measured behind every bank and behind the bed for the regular arrangement of ten banks of spheres. The power spectrum and probability distribution of the fluctuating velocity have also been determined.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 21 (1975), S. 1132-1142 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A reactor system was developed for the study of heterogeneous reaction kinetics in plasma tail flames. This system was used to investigate the thermal decomposition kinetics of stationary particles of molybdenum disulfide in both the molten and solid state when exposed to argon flames in the temperature range 3 000°K to 8 000°K.In the solid state a shrinking-core reaction model was obeyed. The rate of reaction was largely controlled by the diffusion of sulfur vapor outwards through the product layer. An apparent activation energy of 134 kcal/mole was calculated for the particle temperature range 1 613° to 1 833°K The molten state reaction was controlled by the rate of heat transfer to the reacting particle. Calculations indicated that the rate of heat transfer was influenced by the efflux of sulfur.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 22 (1976), S. 713-724 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The major parameters in the design of spray dryers are discussed. A Lagrangian approach, combining experimental data with theoretical concepts, is proposed to develop design methods. Vortex flow patterns, obtained experimentally in a laboratory size chamber, are correlated and presented.Based on this design methodology, computational methods are given to calculate droplet trajectories and hence to predict the optimum chamber dimensions and operating conditions for maximum thermal efficiency and/or minimum operating cost. Application of these basic principles is illustrated by the design of an industrial size, spray drying chamber for a specific feed solution and production rate.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 25 (1979), S. 1057-1064 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The overall heat transfer rates to stationary spheres of highly-polished molybdenum (2 to 5.6 mm in diameter) in a confined argon plasma jet were experimentally measured. The effects of large temperature differences and large variations of the fluid property on the heat transfer process are investigated. The sphere Reynolds number range between 10 and 80, and the sphere temperature between 1,200 K and 2,400 K, with temperature differences between the gas and the sphere in excess of 2,000 K. These conditions are within the range commonly encountered in industrial plasma processing. The experimental values of the heat transfer coefficients are in reasonably good agreement with the predictions of a theoretical analysis of variable-property flow and heat transfer previously reported by the authors.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 7 (1961), S. 254-260 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The rate of evaporation of acetone from single particles accelerating freely in a downward concurrent turbulent air stream was studied over a range of air velocities from 40 to 70 ft./sec. and at a constant air temperature of 410°F. The particles consisted of celite in the shape of spheres, cubes, disks and cylinders, varying in size from 0.15 to 0.40 in. Accurate particle velocity data were obtained with a new radioactive tracer technique, and high-speed photography at two positions along the column permitted measurement of the rate of rotation and showed that the particles rotated in a random manner.Adequate prediction of the observed heat and mass transfer data could be obtained from the integration of a rate eequation previously reported for stationary particles. The concept of a new characteristic dimension, developed for the latter case, was found to be applicable to randomly rotating shapes and to account satisfactorily for the behaviour of nonspherical particles.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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