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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biochemical genetics 15 (1977), S. 59-73 
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: serum amylases ; polymorphism ; cattle ; electrophoresis ; starch gel ; polyacrylamide gel
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Serum amylase variants are demonstrated by means of starch gel and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Phenotypes, allele frequencies, and segregation data for Am1 and Am2 in the cattle breed Deutsche Schwarzbunte are given. Demonstration of Am2 amylases was better in polyacrylamide gels and more isoenzymes were identified than in starch gels. The variants of Am1 amylases found in STAGE could not be reproduced in PAGE by means of the described methods. Both enzyme systems seem to be profoundly different in their molecular constitution and action. For the animals, these differences could be of advantage in the adaption to external influences.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Adenosin ; AIDS-Demenz ; Alzheimer Demenz ; EAE ; K+-Kanäle ; spannungsabhängige ; Mikroglia ; Multiple Sklerose ; Proliferation ; Purinozeptoren ; Regeneration Zytotoxizität ; Key words Adenosine ; AIDS-dementia ; Alzheimer’s dementia ; EAE ; K+-channels ; voltage-dependent ; Microglia ; Multiple sclerosis ; Proliferation ; Purinoceptors ; Regeneration ; Cytotoxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Microglia are the resident macrophages of the brain. They are the central cellular element to initiate defense mechanisms against destructive environmental influences and to facilitate regenerative processes. No other cell type of the brain is endowed with a comparably comprehensive, immunocompetent machinery like microglia. It encompasses cell proliferation, migration and differentiation into full-blown macrophages able to present antigen and to phagocytose cell debris. Relatively little is known about these stages of microglia activation on the cellular and molecular level, although microglia have been described as a separate cell type of the brain as early as in the 30ies of this century by P. del Rio Hortega. This review summarizes the data that have accumulated until now in this respect and tries to embed them into a clinical framework. Special focus has been given to the role of this cell type in the development and progression of Multiple Sclerosis, HIV-associated dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Mikrogliazellen sind residente Makrophagen des Gehirns. In dieser Funktion sind sie das zentrale zelluläre Element für die Einleitung von Abwehrmechanismen gegen schädigende Umwelteinflüsse und für regenerative Prozesse. Kein anderer Zelltyp des Gehirns verfügt über das umfassende, immunokompetente Repertoire, wie es die Mikrogliazellen besitzen. Es erstreckt sich von der Proliferation über die Migration bis zur Differenzierung in ausgereifte Makrophagen, die Antigen präsentieren und Zelltrümmer phagozytieren. Auf zellulärer und molekularer Ebene ist über diese Stadien der Mikrogliaaktivierung noch recht wenig bekannt, obwohl sie schon in den 30er Jahren von P. del Rio Hortega als eigenständiger Zelltyp des Gehirns beschrieben wurden. Diese Übersicht faßt Daten, die bisher auf diesen Ebenen vorliegen, zusammen und diskutiert sie im Kontext ihrer klinischen Relevanz. Insbesondere konzentrieren sich die Ausführungen auf die Bedeutung dieses Zelltyps bei Entstehung und Progression der multiplen Sklerose, der HIV-assoziierten Demenz und der Alzheimer Erkrankung.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Lithium therapy ; Neutrophils ; Ca2+ response
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The agonist-stimulated increase in the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) was determined in neutrophils from patients under chronic lithium therapy and a control group of age- and sex-matched healthy drug-free subjects. Cells were stimulated with the chemotactic peptide formylmethionylleucylphenylalanin (fMLP) and the Ca2+ concentrations measured with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Fura-2. The Ca2+ response to stimulation with fMLP was significantly attenuated in neutrophils from patients chronically treated with lithium. The data suggest that lithium treatment inhibits the inositol phospholipid second messenger generating system in human cells and support the results of earlier inositol phosphate measurements in fMLP-stimulated neutrophils.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Oligodendroglial proteins labeled with radioactive amino acids were subjected to one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Bands comigrating with myelin proteins, the basic protein (MBP), the proteolipid protein (PLP), and the Wolfgram protein (WP) doublet, were detected by Coomassie Blue staining and by autoradiography. The identity of the MBP and WP in the cellular material is evidenced by immunoblotting with specific antibodies. A comparative study of myelin samples from rat and pig CNS reveals that WP can be detected immunochemically in both species. Different protein patterns, however, are observed. Three protein bands are found with antibodies against the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). The high-molecular-weight component prevails in pig myelin, whereas the mediummolecular-weight component is predominant in rat myelin. Moreover, two protein bands, of molecular weights 35,000 and 33,000 (011 and 01 2), are present in high amounts in oligodendroglial particulate material but are not detectable in myelin. These oligodendroglial characteristic proteins are not species-specific, since they are found in preparations of cat oligodendrocytes as well. Activities of cerebroside sulfotransferase (EC 2.8.2.11) are low in freshly isolated cells and increase during the first week of culture. A reverse course of enzyme activities is observed with 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphohydrolase (EC 3.1.4.37). Values reach a minimum about day 5 in culture and recover their initial values. At day 10 they remain stable until the end of the third week of the culture period.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: A method is described by which oligodendrocytes from adult pig brains can be isolated. It results in a cellular preparation suitable for long-term culture. The entire procedure can be accomplished within 2–3 h. The purity of oligodendrocytes ranges between 80 and 95% depending on the Percoll gradient used and on the time in vitro. Yields between 2.5 and 4 × 107 cells per brain and plating efficiencies on the order of 60% make the system very useful for biochemical investigations. It was shown by immunocytochemical studies that oligodendrocytes produce extensive networks of processes, some of them having elaborate membranous expansions. Anti-galactocerebroside (GC) antibodies as well as anti-myelin basic protein (MBP), anti-Wolfgram protein (WP), antiglial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and monoclonal antibodies O1 and O4 are used to identify the cell types and to characterize the cellular composition of the cultures. Anti-GC and O1 are suitable markers for these oligodendrocytes. Both antibodies label similar cells, and the staining intensities are equally strong. In the case of O4, variable staining intensities are observed, and a few additional cells are labeled that are anti-GC−. After 31/2 weeks in culture, about 60% of the cells can be labeled by anti-MBP. Here too differences in staining intensities are observed. The anti-WP stain is too weak to be defined as positive. The percentage of GFAP+ cells lies in the range 15–20% at maximum. Cells were also mixed into collagen gels. This method appears to be more useful for outgrowth and branching of fibers than are monolayer systems. Drawbacks, however, include limited access for the antibodies and poor recovery of undamaged cells with their fibers.
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