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  • 1
    Keywords: INFECTION ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; LIGAND-BINDING ; REGULATORY T-CELLS ; INDOLEAMINE 2,3-DIOXYGENASE ; TRYPTOPHAN CATABOLISM ; IDO ; kynurenine ; AH RECEPTOR ; ENDOTOXIN TOLERANCE
    Abstract: Disease tolerance is the ability of the host to reduce the effect of infection on host fitness. Analysis of disease tolerance pathways could provide new approaches for treating infections and other inflammatory diseases. Typically, an initial exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a state of refractoriness to further LPS challenge (endotoxin tolerance). We found that a first exposure of mice to LPS activated the ligand-operated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the hepatic enzyme tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, which provided an activating ligand to the former, to downregulate early inflammatory gene expression. However, on LPS rechallenge, AhR engaged in long-term regulation of systemic inflammation only in the presence of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). AhR-complex-associated Src kinase activity promoted IDO1 phosphorylation and signalling ability. The resulting endotoxin-tolerant state was found to protect mice against immunopathology in Gram-negative and Gram-positive infections, pointing to a role for AhR in contributing to host fitness.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24930766
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Subcommissural organ ; Development ; Serotonin (5 ; HT) ; Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake ; Glial markers ; Meriones shawi (Rodentia)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Many studies have emphasized species differences in the serotoninergic innervation and phenotypic characteristics of the subcommissural organ in mammals. The post-natal distribution patterns of serotonin-containing fibers, the onset of gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake, and glial markers have been studied in the subcommissural organ of the semi-desertic rodent, Meriones shawi, by using immunohistochemical and autoradiographic techniques. Abundant serotoninergic fibers can be observed in the subcommissural organ of the newborn Meriones, some of them running among the ependymocytes and reaching the apical part of this organ. During the first 2 post-natal weeks of development, the subcommissural organ displays a progressive increase of serotonin fiber density throughout the organ, including the apical part. The existence of a dense serotonin-containing basal plexus concomitantly with a high apical innervation in this organ is a specific characteristic of Meriones. Ependymocytes of this organ have the ability to take up gamma-aminobutyric acid at birth. This uptake decreases and completely disappears from the 2nd week. The reappearance of gamma-aminobutyric acid accumulation in ependymocytes of the adult subcommissural organ after destruction of the serotonin innervation by a neurotoxin (5–7 dihydroxytryptamine) suggests an inhibitory effect of the serotonin innervation on this accumulation. Immunohistochemical studies of the phenotype of the ependymocytes with respect to glial markers during ontogeny show the transitory expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, the presence of vimentin and the absence of S100 protein expression. No correlation has been found between the serotonin innervation and the expression of the glial markers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Exogenous L-Dopa ; dopamine ; serotoninergic neurons ; non-catecholaminergic neurons ; immunohistochemistry ; rat brain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The characterization and localization of non-catecholaminergic cells producing dopamine after L-Dopa load have been investigated in the normal rat brain by a direct immunohistochemical labelling of amines using specific antibodies. The detection of dopamine-containing non-catecholaminergic cells has been achieved in rats given a commonly used mixture of L-Dopa plus peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor, and compared to controls. Results indicate that serotoninergic neurons tend toward a switch of their metabolism into dopamine production after L-Dopa load in a dose-dependent manner. In addition small non-aminergic cells, identified as aromatic amino-acid decarboxylase-containing cells, were observed to produce dopamine after exogenous L-Dopa load. Possible implications of such results concerning the mode of action of L-Dopa in the brain are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7381
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of serotonergic projections to the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord has been investigated, using a highly specific polyclonal antiserum. The highest concentrations of immunoreactive profiles were found in lamina I and the outer part of lamina II (IIo). Intermediate concentrations were found in laminae III and IV, while the inner part of lamina II (IIi) was almost devoid of immunoreactivity. Whereas 60% of the profiles show at least one varicosity studded with synaptic vesicles, only one-fifth of the latter contributes to classical synapses, the remaining profiles being devoid of a facing postsynaptic density. The results are compared with those in the literature and our own results relative to other regions of the cord. It is concluded that the pauci-synaptic projections to the dorsal horn could correspond to a diffuse influence of serotonin, the targets for which are determined by the corresponding serotonergic receptors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7381
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The mapping of noradrenergic innervation was performed in transverse and longitudinal sections of the adult rat spinal cord using noradrenaline immunocytochemistry. Noradrenergic fibres and terminals were distributed in the dorsal horn (mainly in the superficial part), in the vicinity of the different groups of motoneurons, and concentrated in the intermediolateral cell column and around the central canal. The ultrastructural study showed principally axodendritic synapses in the ventral horn and in the intermediolateral cell column. Fewer axosomatic synapses were detected. In the dorsal horn, noradrenalineinnervation was predominantly non-synaptic. It is hypothesized that the noradrenergic modulation of nociception is not mediated through classical synapses. The concept of ‘volume transmission’ can explain such an influence. Conversely, noradrenaline may be involved in the control of locomotion and automatic functions through conventional synapses.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Quetol 651 was used as an embedding medium for the demonstration of γ aminobutyric acid (GABA) in semithin sections by the peroxidase—anti-peroxidase method. In order to demonstrate the immunoreactivity, the embedding medium was partially dissolved using absolute ethanol containing 0.8–1m NaOH or KOH for 5–7 min. The experimental procedure was elaborated by testing the GABAergic sites in the endings surrounding the small neurones of the anterior exterolateral nucleus of a mormyrid fish and in the pyramidal cells of the electrosensory lateral line lobe of gymnotoid fish by applying anti-GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase) antiserum. To test the general validity of the use of Quetol 651, GABAergic sites were also identified in the central nervous system of an insect, the honey bee, with anti-GABA and anti-GAD antisera. The intensity of labelling revealed by immunoperoxidase applied to Quetol 651-embedded semithin sections, demonstrated high precision and gave good resolution for light microscopical observations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: pulsed microwaves ; amplitude modulation ; in vivo ; immune response ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Irradiation by pulsed microwaves (9.4 GHz, 1 μs pulses at 1,000/s), both with and without concurrent amplitude modulation (AM) by a sinusoid at discrete frequencies between 14 and 41 MHz, was assessed for effects on the immune system of Balb/C mice. The mice were immunized either by sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or by glutaric-anhydride conjugated bovine serum albumin (GA-BSA), then exposed to the microwaves at a low rms power density (30 μW/cm2; whole-body-averaged SAR ∼ 0.015 W/kg). Sham exposure or microwave irradiation took place during each of five contiguous days, 10 h/day. The antibody response was evaluated by the plaque-forming cell assay (SRBC experiment) or by the titration of IgM and IgG antibodies (GA-BSA experiment). In the absence of AM, the pulsed field did not greatly alter immune responsiveness. In contrast, exposure to the field under the combined-modulation condition resulted in significant, AM-frequency-dependent augmentation or weakening of immune responses.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: 5-Hydroxytryptophan ; Parachlorophenylalanine ; Benserazide ; Sleep ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the rat, the insomnia which follows the administration of parachlorophenylalanine (p-CPA), a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, is transiently reversed either by intra-cisternal injection of L-5-HTP or by an associated injection of 5-HTP and an L-aromatic-aciddecarboxylase inhibitor (benserazide). Histochemical, immunohistochemical and chemical investigations showed that 5-HTP administration does not lead to a detectable increase in cerebral 5-HT. These findings suggest that the restoration of sleep after p-CPA treatment could be mediated by the central action of 5-HTP.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The aim of this work was to study l-DOPA-containing neuronal structures of the rat posterior and dorsal hypothalamus by means of immunohistochemistry using antiserum against glutaraldehyde conjugated l-DOPA. Aspects and distribution of l-DOPA immunoreaction among cells of the supramammillary nucleus and the A11, A13c and A13 cell groups are described and compared to dopamine immunoreactivity, mainly through a double colored labelling procedure employing a color modification of the DAB reaction by metallic ions. Differences between l-DOPA and dopamine stainings within cell groups as the presence of cells with predominant or exclusive l-DOPA coloration are tentatively explained under the light of previous findings using immunohistochemistry of catecholamines synthesizing enzymes and catecholamines histofluorescence.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary There are now increasing evidences suggesting that GABA is able of direct interaction with certain endocrine cells. In the present study, highly specific anti-GABA-glutaraldehyde antibodies and 3H-GABA uptake were used at the light and electron microscope levels to investigate the occurrence of cells containing endogenous GABA or taking up exogenous GABA in the mucosal antrum and corpus of the rat stomach. Only certain endocrine cell types of both regions were immunostained or grain-labelled. However, the morphology of their secretory granules did not allow to identify the nature of their hormone with certainty but suggested that somatostatin-like cells could interact with GABA. The combination of gastrin and somatostatin immunodetection with 3H-GABA uptake autoradiography at the light microscope level, revealed that a subpopulation of somatostatin-like cells and other still unidentified endocrine cells are able to take up GABA, while the gastrin-like cells are not. These results reinforce the hypothesis that certain endocrine cell types of the diffuse endocrine system of the digestive tract are able to directly interact with GABA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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