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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG ; LUNG-CANCER ; DISEASE ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; HEALTH ; smoking ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; case-control studies ; lung neoplasms ; glutathione-S-transferase ; case-control study ; WORLDWIDE ; review ; METAANALYSIS ; GENOTYPE ; CHINESE POPULATION ; PUBLICATION BIAS ; DNA ADDUCT LEVELS ; NULL-GENOTYPE ; Asian continental ancestry group ; glutathione S-transferase pi ; GSTP1 ; HONG-KONG ; P1 POLYMORPHISMS ; PI-GENE
    Abstract: Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. Polymorphisms in genes associated with carcinogen metabolism may modulate risk of disease. Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) detoxifies polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and is the most highly expressed glutathione S-transferase in lung tissue. A polymorphism in the GSTP1 gene, an A-to-G transition in exon 5 (Ile105Val, 313A -〉 313G), results in lower activity among individuals who carry the valine allele. The authors present a meta- and a pooled analysis of case-control studies that examined the association between this polymorphism in GSTP1 and lung cancer risk (27 studies, 8,322 cases and 8,844 controls and 15 studies, 4,282 cases and 5,032 controls, respectively). Overall, the meta-analysis found no significant association between lung cancer risk and the GSTP1 exon 5 polymorphism. In the pooled analysis, there was an overall association (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.21) between lung cancer and carriage of the GSTP1 Val/Val or Ile/Val genotype compared with those carrying the Ile/Ile genotype. Increased risk varied by histologic type in Asians. There appears to be evidence for interaction between amount of smoking, the GSTP1 exon 5 polymorphism, and risk of lung cancer in whites
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19240225
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychiatric quarterly 53 (1981), S. 235-241 
    ISSN: 1573-6709
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Depression should not be too difficult either to diagnose or to treat. The characteristic symptoms—depressed affect, psychomotor retardation, vegetative signs, ideas of suicide and worthlessness—are straightforward and easy to recognize. The procedures for combining antidepressant medication and psychotherapy are well understood and usually effective. Yet, clinicians tend to miss the diagnosis with distressing regularity. Part of the problem is that the symptoms are not always characteristic. Depression often comes in atypical or hidden forms that confound the diagnostician. But even if the disguise is penetrated, the psychiatrist is apt to conclude that, because the symptoms are “soft,” the depression is “reactive” and should be treated by psychotherapy alone, even when there are underlying biological determinants. My purpose here is to discuss several typical cases of atypical or hidden depression that have been successfully treated by combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. We shall be on the lookout for historical, characterological, and symptomatic clues that tip off the diagnosis and suggest a combined etiology and a role for combined treatment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: GTP cyclohydrolase ; Drosophila melanogaster ; pteridines ; dihydroneopterin triphosphate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The first enzyme (named GTP cyclohydrolase) in the pathway for the biosynthesis of pteridines has been partially purified from extracts of late pupae and young adults of Drosophila melanogaster. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolytic removal from GTP of carbon 8 as formate and the synthesis of 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(d-erythro-1′,2′,3′-trihydroxypropyl)-7,8-dihydropteridine triphosphate (dihydroneopterin triphosphate). Some of the properties of the enzyme are as follows: it functions optimally at pH 7.8 and at 42 C; activity is unaffected by KCl and NaCl, but divalent cations (Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, and Ca2+) are inhibitory; the K m for GTP is 22 μm; and the molecular weight is estimated at 345,000 from gel filtration experiments. Of a number of nucleotides tested, only GDP and dGTP were used to any extent as substrate in place of GTP, and these respective compounds were used only 1.8% and 1.5% as well as GTP.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster ; biopterin synthesis ; oxidation of dihydropterins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract An enzyme which has been named “biopterin synthase” has been discovered in Drosophila melanogaster. This enzyme, which has been purified 200-fold from extracts of Drosophila, catalyzes the conversion of sepiapterin to dihydrobiopterin, or oxidized sepiapterin to biopterin. The K m values for the two substrates are 63 µm for sepiapterin and 10 µm for oxidized sepiapterin. NADPH is required in this enzymatic reaction. An analysis of enzyme activity during development in Drosophila indicates a correlation between enzyme activity and biopterin content at various development stages. Another enzyme, called “dihydropterin oxidase,” was also discovered and partially purified. This enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of dihydropterin compounds to the corresponding pterin compounds. For example, sepiapterin (a dihydropterin) is oxidized to oxidized sepiapterin in the presence of this enzyme. The only dihydropterin that has been tested that is not a substrate for this enzyme is dihydroneopterin triphosphate, the compound thought to be a precursor for all naturally occurring pterins and dihydropterins. Since the action of dihydropterin oxidase is reduced significantly when the concentration of oxygen is very low, it is likely that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as the oxidizing agent during the oxidation of dihydropterins. Neither NAD+ or NADP+ is required. In the presence of the two enzymes dihydropterin oxidase and biopterin synthase, sepiapterin is converted to biopterin. However, in the presence of biopterin synthase alone, sepiapterin is converted to dihydrobiopterin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Clinical social work journal 1 (1973), S. 132-134 
    ISSN: 1573-3343
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2592
    Keywords: Interleukin-2 ; systemic lupus erythematosus ; Lupus Activity Index
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are known to have defects in both humoral and cellular immunity. The significance of defective T cell-mediated immunity and its relationship to disease activity have not been clearly established. We studiedin vitro T helper cell (Th) function in 150 SLE outpatients and correlated Th function with validated measures of disease activity. Interleukin 2 (IL-2) production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was measured after stimulation with the recall antigens influenza A virus (FLU) and tetanus toxoid (TET), irradiated allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (ALLO), and phytohemagglutinin (PHA). We observed three patterns of Th response: (1) 76 of 150 (50%) of patients responded to the recall antigens FLU and/or TET, ALLO, and PHA; (2) 62 of 150 (42%) of patients did not respond to recall antigens but responded to ALLO and PHA; and (3) 12 of 150 (8%) of patients did not respond to either recall antigens or ALLO antigens. This diminished T cell function was correlated with higher disease activity as measured by four scales of clinical activity, such that individuals who exhibited morein vitro immune dysfunction presented with significant increases in their clinical activity indicies. The alterations in T cell function could not be accounted for by medication doses alone. Thus, SLE patients have multiple distinct defects at the level of the Th cell which are associated with clinical measures of disease activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Keywords: Key words D3S1358 ; D8S1179 ; D18S51 ; D19S253 ; Triplex PCR amplification ; Forensic genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Notes: Abstract Allele frequencies for four short tandem repeat loci were determined in a population sample from Catalonia (NE Spain). After denaturing PAGE electrophoresis, 8 alleles were identified for D3S1358 (n = 201), 10 alleles for D8S1179 (n = 198), 13 alleles for D18S51 (n = 197) and 11 alleles for D19S253 (n = 201). No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found. Complete and relative uniformity in Caucasoid populations has been observed for D18S51 and D8S1179 respectively. Pronounced differences were found between different ethnic groups for both systems. Catalonia and Portugal do not differ for D3S1358 locus. Multiplex PCR amplifications of three loci (D3S1358, D18S51 and D19S253) without overlapping fragment size ranges could be interesting for monochrome automated laser fluorescence devices.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Keywords: Key words STR polymorphisms ; Y-chromosome ; Y-haplotype ; Forensic genetics ; Population genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Notes: Abstract Haplotype frequencies for eight Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were determined in ¶a population sample from Barcelona (NE Spain). After PCR amplification and denaturing PAGE electrophoresis, DYS19, DYS388, DYS389 I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393 loci were typed. Complete eight ¶Y-chromosomal STRs haplotypes could be formed for 223 subjects, among which 137 different haplotypes were observed. The most common haplotype was shared by 13% of the sample, while 108 haplotypes were unique. The discrimination capacity was 61.5% and the gene diversity was 0.978. From the forensic point of view the combined polymorphisms provide a high diagnostic efficiency.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: sepiapterin ; Drosophila ; biosynthesis ; pteridines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Sepiapterin synthase, the enzyme system responsible for the synthesis of sepiapterin from dihydroneopterin triphosphate, has been partially purified from extracts of the heads of young adult fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). The sepiapterin synthase system consists of two components, termed “enzyme A” (MW 82,000) and “enzyme B” (MW 36,000). Some of the properties of the enzyme system are as follows: NADPH and a divalent cation, supplied most effectively as MgCl2, are required for activity; optimal activity occurs at pH 7.4 and 30 C; the K m for dihydroneopterin triphosphate is 10 µm; and a number of unconjugated pterins, including biopterin and sepiapterin, are inhibitory. Dihydroneopterin cannot be used as substrate in place of dihydroneopterin triphosphate. Evidence is presented in support of a proposed reaction mechanism for the enzymatic conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to sepiapterin in which enzyme A catalyzes the production of a labile intermediate by nonhydrolytic elimination of the phosphates of dihydroneopterin triphosphate, and enzyme B catalyzes the conversion of this intermediate, in the presence of NADPH, to sepiapterin. An analysis of the activity of sepiapterin synthase during development in Drosophila revealed the presence of a small amount of activity in eggs and young larvae and a much larger amount in late pupae and young adults. Sepiapterin synthase activity during development corresponds with the appearance of sepiapterin in the flies. Of a variety of eye color mutants of Drosophila melanogaster tested for sepiapterin synthase activity, only purple (pr) flies contained activity that was significantly lower than that found in the wild-type flies (22% of the wild-type activity). Further studies indicated that the amount of enzyme A activity is low in purple flies, whereas the amount of enzyme B activity is equal to that present in wild-type flies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Keywords: VNTR ; YNZ22 ; D17S5 ; Population genetics ; Paternity testing ; VNTR ; YNZ22 ; D17S5 ; Polymerase-Kettenreaktion (PCR) ; Populationsgenetik ; Vaterschaftsuntersuchung
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Allelfrequenzen und phänotypische Häufigkeiten des Locus YNZ22 wurden in einer katalanischen Bevölkerungsstichprobe (Spanien) mittels der Polymerase-Kettenreaktion bestimmt. 14 Allele und 56 Phänotypen wurden bei insgesamt 311 nicht verwandten Individuen beobachtet. Eine Abweichung vom Hardy-Weinberg Gleichgewicht wurde nicht festgestellt. Die Heterozygotenrate betrug 81,35%. Der Polymorphismus YNZ22 ist mit einem CE-Wert von 70% und einem EM (Essen-Möller)-Wert von 9,35 (log) zur Vaterschaftsuntersuchung geeignet.
    Notes: Abstract Allele and phenotype frequencies for the YNZ22 locus were determined in a population sample from Catalonia (Spain) using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In 311 unrelated individuals, 14 alleles and 56 phenotypes were observed. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found. The observed heterozygosity was 81.35%. The YNZ22 polymorphism is useful for paternity testing with a CE value of 70% and an Essen-MÖller value of 9.35 (log.)
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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